In this episode I’m going to teach you the names of the different Australian states and territories, mention where they are located in Australia, as well as how to pronounce them in both standard well annunciation English and Aussie English. In
Pronunciation of Australian states and territories
Australia we have six states and two main territories. They are as follows:
New South Whales (NSW)
South Australia (SA)
Western Australia (WA)
(The) Northern Territory (NT)
(The) Australian Capital Territory (ACT)
Check out the following episode number 32 here in order to learn the names and pronunciation of each state and territories capital city.
If you liked this pronunciation episode guys then jump over here and check out all the other Aussie English pronunciation episodes to help you improve the fluidity of your spoken English!
Also be sure to come over to the Aussie English Facebook page and chat to the many other Aussie English learners. Practice a few of these words or phrases, ask any questions you may have, and be a part of the conversation! All the best guys!
(The above image taken from wikipedia. For more information about the history of Australia’s states and territories check out the wiki page here.)
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About the AuthorI learn languages, teach Australian English, and love all things science and nature!
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By pete — 2 years ago
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21 Ways To Greet Someone Like A Native
Blue text = Pronunciation tips using English spelling
G’day guys. Welcome to this episode of Aussie English. I’m Pete, and today I’m going to be teaching you 21 ways to greet someone like a native. Let’s go!
So, let’s start with the simple ones guys.
Hello. Hello. Hello, mate! Hello. So, Hello is the kind of greeting that I would use as a native when answering the phone, you know, *ring* *ring*, “Hello? It’s Pete speaking.”, if I was answering the door and I didn’t know who it was, someone’s knocked on the door, “Hello? Who’s there?”. But it’s not really the kind of greeting that I would use when talking to someone face-to-face.
Hi. Hi, mate! Hi. Hi, again, is pretty common. You’re going to hear this all the time, especially, in countries like America, probably Britain as well. You might hear it from time to time in Australia, but again, it’s not the kind of greeting that I would really use with people I know. It might be something that I say to a stranger. If someone bumps into me and I turn around and they were like, “Oh, sorry. How’s it going?”, I might say, “Oh, hi!”.
Hey. Hey, mate! Hey, how’s it going? Hey. Hey’s the kind of greeting that I would use all the time. This is short, sweet, very quick. Hey. Hey, how’s it going? Hey.
G’day. G’day, mate! G’day. G’day. G’day is another greeting that you guys hear me saying all the time. This one, however, is definitely Australian. You’re not going to hear this by Americans. You’re not going to hear this by people from the UK, at least, not with that contracted “Good”. They’ll probably say “Good day” if they’re really in a formal situation. But in Australia we say “G’day” all the time, and especially the more working-class you are, as you go out into the countryside, you’re going to hear people like Steve Irwin or Crocodile Dundee, that kind of stereotypical Australian saying, “G’day mate.” G’day. G’day.
Howdy. Howdy, guys! Howdy. Howdy’s another one that you might hear sometimes from Australians, but I think this one is a lot more American, and the only reason that Australians might say it is if they watch a lot of American TV and they hear this all the time, or they’re kind of just being a little jovial, you know, a little humorous, like “Howdy! How’s it going? Howdy, guys!”, you know, sort of putting on that American accent a little bit, but not in a nasty way. So, that’s “Howdy”. Howdy, guys! Howdy.
Alright, before we move onto the really really good ones, the longer ones, the slightly more difficult ones, I want to get through the fact that we don’t say “How do you do?”. This’s something that I feel is taught all the time, and I have people saying this to me, but it is incredibly formal. Obviously, if you were incredibly proper, incredibly formal, if you’re in the royal family, if you’re the Queen of England you might say to people, “How do you do? How do you do sir?”, but no one is going to say that to you in real life. No natives would ever greet each other “How do you do?” unless they were being sarcastic. It’s a lot more natural to hear people saying…
6. How’re you doing? = How ya doin’?
HOW AH YU DO EN / HOW YA DO EN
How’re you doing? How are you doing? How ya doin’? How ya doin’? Good mate. How are you doin’? How’re you doing? And this one’s pronounced “HOW YA DO EN”. How ya doin’? How ya doin’?
So, now that we’ve covered that let’s move onto the next ones, and these are really common, these are really common.
7. What’s up = S’up
WOT SUP / SUP
What’s up? Hey, mate, what’s up? What is up? Not literally what is up, but more, “What is up with you? What’s going on? What’re you up to? What’s up?”, and you’ll often hear this contracted to just “S’up?”. So, I might be like, “Hey, mate, what’s up?” or I could be, “Hey mate, s’up?”. So, you’re going to hear this all the time. What’s up? What’s up? Or simply, s’up? S’up mate?
8. What’ve you been up to (lately)? = Whatcha been upta?
WAH TEV YU BEEN UP TA LATE LEE / WAH CHA BIN UP TA
What’ve you been up to lately? What have you been up to lately? So, what’ve you been up to? What’ve you been doing? What’ve you been up to lately? And you’re going to hear this contracted all the time to, “Whatcha been upta?” WHA CHA BIN UP TA. Whatcha bin upta? Whatcha bin upta, mate? G’day mate, whatcha bin upta? Whatcha bin upta? And this is just another way of saying, “What’ve you been doing?”. WHA CHA BIN UPTA?
9. What’s going on? = S’goin’ on?
WOT SGO EN ON / SGO EN ON
Another really common one is “What’s goin’ on?”. What’s goin’ on? Not much, what’s goin’ on with you? What’s goin’ on, man? What’s going on, mate? And you’ll often hear, What’s goin’ on? What’s goin’ on? What’s goin’ on?, you’ll often hear this contracted to just “S’goin’ on?”, SGO EN ON? So, we’ve just taken “What” out of the equation, left the “S” and then we’ve got “GO EN ON”. S’goin’ on? S’goin’ on, mate?
10. What’s the goss?
WOTS THA GOSS
What’s the goss? What’s the goss, mate? Not much. What’s the goss with you? What about you? What’s the goss? What’s the goss? “Goss” in this case, is short for the word “Gossip” as in rumours, what’s the news?, what’re the secrets about people? What’s the goss? What’s the gossip about you? What’s the goss?
11. What’s new?
What’s new? G’day, mate, what’s new? What’s new? What’s new, man? What’s new is just literally, “What is new with you?”, What is the news? What’s new? Can you tell me something I don’t know or that I didn’t know when I last saw you? What’s new?
12. What’s the news? = What’s news?
WOTS THA NYUS / WOTS NYUS
What’s the news? What’s the news? And this often gets contracted to “What’s news?”. What’s news, mate? Not much. What about you? What’s news? So, you’ve got “What’s new” with no “S” at the end, and then you’ve got, “What’s news?”. And when someone says to you, “What’s news? What’s news?”, they’re asking you to tell them what yours news is. Like you’re watching the news on TV and you’re hearing all of the new information for the day. They want to know what your new information is. What’s news? Tell me what’s new with you. Tell me what’s news. What’s your news? What’s news?
13. What’s been happening?
WOTS BIN HAP EN EN
What’s been happening? Hey, man. How’s it goin’? What’s been happenin’? What has been happening? And this often gets contracted all the way down from “What has been happening?” to “What’s been happenin’?” What’s been happenin’? And this is a lot similar to “What’s the news?”, “What’s the goss?”, “What’s your news?”. I’m asking you about what’s been happening in your life. What’s been happenin’?
14. How’s it going? = How’s it goin’?
HOW ZIT GO EN
Another really really common one, and this is one that you should probably focus on out of all of them in here, all of these different greetings, this is a really really common one that’s easy to remember and that you’re going to be able to use a lot and hear a lot in Australia, “How’s it goin’?”. How’s it going? How’s it goin’, mate? How’re you? How’s it goin’, mate? “How is it going” getting contracted down to “How’s it goin’?” HOW ZIT GO EN. How’s it goin’?
15. How’re you going? = How ya goin’?
HOW AH YU GO EN / HOW YA GO EN
Another one, similar to “How’s it goin'” is “How’re you goin’?”. How’re you going? How’re you going, mate? Yeah, not bad. How’re you goin’, mate? How are you goin’, and this gets contracted down to just HOW YA GO EN. How ya goin’?
16. How are you? = How are ya?
HOW AH YU / HOW AH YA
How are you? How are you? How ya goin’? How are ya? Hey, mate! How are ya? How are ya, mate? How are you? Are you good? How are you? Tell me how you are. Are you good? But this one gets contracted down to HOW WAH YA. How are ya? So, that again, that is an incredibly common one. How are ya? How are ya? Learn that one as well as, “How’s it goin’?” and “How are ya?”. How are ya, mate? How’s it goin’, mate? How are ya?
17. How’s things?
How’s things? How’s things on your end? How’s things, dude? How’s things? How is things? This one’s probably incorrect grammatically because “Things” is plural and you’re saying “How IS things”, but all the same, it’s said a lot. How’s things? How’s things? This’s similar to “What’s news?”, “What’s goss?”, “What’s been happenin’?”. How are your things? What’re the things like on your end? Tell me about your things. How’s things?
18. How’re things?
HOW AH THINGZ
And then, obviously, we’ve got the grammatically correct version, “How ARE things?”. How’re things? Dude! How’re things? I haven’t seen you in ages. Yeah, good to see you too, man. How’re things? How’re things? We should catch up! How’re things? How’re things?
19. How’s it hanging?
HOW ZIT HANG EN
How’s it hanging? How is it hanging? Dude, how’s it hangin’? Yeah, not too bad, mate. What about you? How’s it hangin’? How’re you mate? How’s it hangin’? “Hanging” like you were hanging from a tree. How’s it hanging? This’s also very common. And again, with that “How’s it…” it turns into HOW ZIT, HOW ZIT. How’s it hangin’? So, it gets contracted down from “How is it hanging?” to “How’s it hangin’?”.
20. How’ve you been?
HOW EV YU BEEN
And getting to the last one here, guys, “How have you been?”. Mate, how’ve you been? How have you been? Have you been well, mate? How’ve you been, mate? This is one that also gets contracted even further. We get rid of the EV from “Have” that’s on “How” and we just say…
21. How ya been?
HOW YA BIN
“How ya been?”. How ya been? Dude, I haven’t seen you in ages! How ya been? Dude, what about you? How ya been? How ya been?
That’s it, guys. There’s at least 21 in there. They should be pretty easy. There’s a few interesting pronunciation things going on there, but definitely go back over it. Have a look at the way that I’ve outlined the real pronunciation of these phrases, and focus more on using those kinds of colloquial greetings and colloquial ways of saying, “How are you?”, “How’re you going”, “How’re you doing?”, “What’s going on?”, all of that sort of stuff. You’ll sound a lot more native and people are going to respond really definitely I think you’ll find than if you were to use things like, “Hello” and “How do you do?”.
Anyway, let me know what you guys think. Do you already use some of these in your day-to-day spoken English? Comment below, and I’ll catch you later guys. Hope you’re well.
G’day. Goodbye. See ya!
- As I speak more casually or with a stronger accent the pronunciation of certain vowels often shifts.
YOU [jʉː] > YA [jɐ]
BEEN [biːn] > BIN [bɪn]
-ING [ɪŋ] > EN [en]
TO [tʉː] > TA [tɐ]
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By pete — 3 years ago
In this episode of Embarrassing English Errors Ep03 I teach you the subtle difference in pronunciation of the words arse & us.
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Embarrassing English Errors Ep03 – Arse & Us
Hey guys, and welcome to this episode of Embarrassing English Errors. Today’s episode is going to include the words “arse” and “us”. “Arse” and “us”.
So, “us”, to define “us” it’s used by someone who’s referring to himself or herself and one or more other people. So, “to know us”, “to give to us”, “to be with us”. That’s what “us” means.
The word “arse”. This is a term used in English English and Australian English to refer to a person’s buttocks, behind, bum, butt. You sit on it. That’s your bum [arse]. Um… in American English they use the word “ass” instead of “arse”, and so, I’ll probably do an episode on “ass” in the future, but it’s less common in Australian English, particularly when you’re talking about your bottom. You wouldn’t say “ass” you would say “arse”.
Obviously these words sound very similar and I think the difference is mainly that “arse” is a prolonged vowel [sound]. So, you say “aaaaarse”. Whereas “us” is a lot quicker. It’s just an “uh” sound. “Us”, “us”. It’s not “uuuuuuuhs” it’s just “us” and “arse”. They’re the different ways of pronouncing those two words. So, I think it’s pretty much exactly the same vowel sound, except that “arse” is prolonged and “us” is incredibly short. “Us”, “uh”, “uh”, “uh” and “aaaah”, “aaaah”, “aaarse”.
So, what are some other words in English that have the vowel sound similar to that, or the same as that, from the word “arse”?
And what are some other words in English that have the same vowel sound as “us”?
So, you’ll probably notice when you listen to this again that when I say the words sounding like “arse” all of them have a longer vowel, “arc”, “art”, “artist”, “start”, but when I say any of the words that sound like “us” they all sound very short “a”, “but”, “cut”, “up”, “bus”, “puss”. They’re all very very short vowel sounds. So, that’s the main difference between these two.
So, let’s practice the pronunciation of the two different vowel sounds on their own, and I’ll run through this five times.
Ah – Uh x 5
So, let’s do some made up and real words now just to practice the sounds after consonants.
Parse – Pus
Blarse – Blus
Farse – Fus
Crarse – Crus
Strarse – Strus
Blarse – Blus
Narse – Nus
Thrarse – Thrus
Darse – Dus
Zarse – Zus
Karse – Kus
Marse – Mus
And to finish we’ll just go through the actual words “arse” and “us” ten times.
Arse – Us x 10
So I hoped you like this episode guys. I hope it’s helping with learning the difference in these sort of minor pronunciation of words that can lead to relatively embarrassing errors in English. And, it’s not really that big of a deal but it’s always nice to have confidence when you’re speaking and that’s why I think it’s important to practice these kinds of things because you’re never going to be worried about accidentally using the wrong word in certain situations if you practice these things, you know? So, you won’t avoid certain words, certain contexts or certain points of discussion out of um… embarrassment in the future. So, keep practicing, keep nailing it, and if you have any other questions or any other sounds that you’d like to work on send me a message or comment on something on Facebook and I’ll try and do an episode as soon as possible.
All the best guys!
If you guys enjoyed this episode of Embarrassing English Errors then make sure you check out the rest of the episodes and transcripts here. Also, don’t forget to come visit me on Facebook and let me know what you think of the podcast and say hey to the Aussie English community!
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By pete — 2 years ago
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Pronunciation: Contracting HAS & HAVE onto THIS, THAT, THESE & THOSE
G’day guys. Welcome to this episode of Aussie English.
Today we’re going to be contracting HAS and HAVE onto some demonstrative pronouns. I won’t get too bogged down into the grammar, I won’t talk about that too much, but a demonstrative pronoun includes words such as THIS and THAT, THESE and THOSE. So, the difference between THIS and THAT, THIS is closer to me, THAT is over there. So, if I was in a car I could say THIS CAR if I was talking about it. Whereas, if I was standing on the road and there was a car over on the other side of the road I would refer to that car THAT CAR because it’s away from me. So, THIS is close to me, THAT is away from me. And it’s the same with THESE and THOSE except they’re plural. So, if there were two cars near me or really close to me I could say THESE CARS, THESE TWO CARS. If the cars were incredibly far away or on the other side of the road I could say THOSE CARS, THOSE TWO CARS.
So, in previous episodes we’ve done HAS on its own with the pronouns SHE, HE and IT, and we’ve done HAVE on its own with the pronouns I, YOU, WE and THEY. So, this episode’s going to be good because you’re going to have to think on your feet, you’re going to have to think more than usual because you will be contracting both HAS and HAVE onto their respective demonstrative pronouns. So, the singular ones get HAS, THIS HAS becomes THIS’S, THAT HAS becomes THAT’S, and the plural ones get HAVE, THOSE HAVE becomes THOSE’VE, THESE HAVE becomes THESE’VE.
And so, as usual we’ll go through just a listen and repeat exercise, guys, where we can practice our pronunciation of both the uncontracted and the contracted forms of THAT HAS, THIS HAS, THOSE HAVE and THESE HAVE. So, listen and repeat after me. I’m going to say each one of those in their uncontracted followed by contracted forms five times. You know the drill. Let’s go.
Listen and repeat:
That has – that’s x 5
This has – this’s x 5
Those have – those’ve x 5
These have – these’ve x 5
Something to add here, guys, is that when writing, particularly when writing formally, you’re probably not going to ever see HAS or HAVE contracted onto THAT, THIS, THOSE and THESE. So, it’s not that big of a deal and I would definitely write it contracted if I’m writing on Facebook or on some kind of thing on the internet and it’s incredibly informal. However, if you’re getting a job in an English speaking country and you’re planning to write formal documents or write on formal documents, say a report for work or say you’re writing a résumé I would not contract HAS or HAVE onto demonstrative pronouns like THAT, THIS, THOSE and THESE. So, that’s the take away message here. If you’re writing formally at work or to get a job, some kind of formal writing, maybe avoid contracting HAS or HAVE onto demonstrative pronouns because it is an informal way of speaking and a very informal way of writing if you were to write it contracted at all.
Anyway, as usual guys let’s jump into the substitution exercises, and you’re probably getting the idea of the pattern here for HAS and HAVE. In the first substitution exercise I tend to use HAS and HAVE with the word GOT in two different ways. When GOT is used followed by a noun it means that you HAVE something, you POSSESS something. So, YOU’VE GOT something. And remember this is used to avoid confusion when HAS is contracted onto words and it could sound like you’ve contracted IS onto those words. So, if you were to say HE HAS A CAT versus HE IS A CAT when they’re both contracted they both sound the same, they both sound like HE’S A CAT. And so, my automatic assumption that you’re talking about something or someone that IS a cat instead of someone or something that HAS a cat. To avoid this confusion we add the word GOT after HAS. So, HE’S GOT A CAT avoids that confusion of him BEING A CAT, i.e. HE’S A CAT.
And the second form is when HAS and HAVE GOT is followed by a verb, and remember that when HAVE GOT, when something HAS GOT to do something, that verb, TO BE somewhere, TO GO somewhere, it means TO HAVE TO, TO NEED TO, that something MUST do something. So, it’s imperative.
So, as usual we’re going to use the first substitution exercise to do the contractions of HAVE and HAS followed by the word GOT, and then in the second one we’re going to do it with the PAST PARTICIPLE of the verbs when we’re talking about something that’s happened in the past.
So, I might add too guys that just before we do this exercise if you get confused about understanding what I’m referring to in the sentences then make sure check the manuscript because I’ve written in brackets after each one of these demonstrative pronouns where the context is a bit confusing I’ve put a noun in this so that you get the idea of what I’m talking about. So, if I just say a sentence like THESE ARE MINE without any context there you’ve got absolutely no idea what I’m talking about. It could be shoes, it could be pets, it could be houses, it could be cars. So, in each of these sentences where it is confusing just to hear THESE HAVE GOT SIX LEGS, for example, on its own and you don’t know what I’m talking about I’ve put a noun in there so that you can imagine what I’m talking about when you’re doing these exercises. So, that’s just a nice way of knowing the context and better thinking about these sentences when you read them as opposed to just repeating them without thinking. So, that’s it guys. I just wanted to make sure that you understood that before we did it.
So, let’s go guys. Here’s the first substitution exercise with HAS GOT and HAVE GOT.
Substitution exercise: HAS/HAVE + GOT
This (fighting) has got to stop.
This’s got to stop.
That (statement) has got nothing to do with it.
That’s got nothing to do with it.
These (insects) have got six legs.
These’ve got six legs.
Those (shoes) have got to be ours.
Those’ve got to be ours.
This (answer) has got to be it.
This’s got to be it.
That has got be the last of it.
That’s got to be the last of it.
These (clothing stores) have got some nice clothes.
These’ve got some nice clothes.
Those (recipes) have got dairy in them.
Those’ve got too much dairy in them.
That (car) has got two doors.
That’s got two doors.
These (dogs) have got long fur.
These’ve got long fur.
Those (houses) have got large windows.
Those’ve got large windows.
This (activity) has got his name written on it.
This’s got his name written on it.
So, in this substitution exercise, guys, we’re going to use HAS and HAVE followed by a PAST PARTICIPLE. So, THIS HAS BEEN or THESE HAVE BEEN, for example. And just remember that in order to allow you to understand the context of some of these sentences, if you read the manuscript where it could be confusing I’ve put example nouns in brackets in the sentences so that you can better imagine what that sentence, what that example is referring to when you’re thinking and when you’re reading and repeating these exercises.
So, let’s go guys.
Substitution exercise: HAS/HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
This (argument) has been going on too long.
This’s been going on too long.
That (computer error) has happened a few times now.
That’s happened a few times now.
These have been questions I have asked before.
These’ve been questions I’ve asked before.
Those (reports at work) have waited to be done all day.
Those’ve waited to be done all day.
This (TV series) has just finished.
This’s just finished.
That (explanation) has failed to impress him.
That’s failed to impress him.
These have been a wet past few days.
These’ve been a wet past few days.
Those (old clothes) have fallen apart.
Those’ve fallen apart.
This (puzzle) has taken so long to finish.
This’s taken so long to finish.
That (plan) has worked out well.
That’s worked out well.
These (problems) have occupied my mind all week.
These’ve occupied my mind all week.
Those (documents) have come from work.
Those’ve come from work.
So, that’s it for today, guys. I hope this episode helps. Remember, go over it a few times. Keep practicing these things and eventually it’s going to become subconscious. You’re not going to have to think about it. You’re just going to make the appropriate contractions in the sentences that you say or in the sentences that you write in English without having to think about it. And just one last reminder, if any of these sentences were confusing when you were reading them and you didn’t understand what I could potentially have been referring to make sure that you read the manuscript and have a look for the nouns that I’ve placed after each demonstrative pronoun to give you context about what each sentence could be referring to. ‘Cause I always think that it’s really useful to be learning in context. If you want to learn anything in a language you need to understand what it is that you’re learning. So, I definitely recommend reading the manuscript, understanding the context of each one of these sentences and repeating the exercise. See you in the next episode guys.
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