Learn Australian English in this episode of the Aussie English Podcast where I show you the three types of Australian accents, the General Accent, the Cultivated Accent, and the Broad Accent. Which do you find hardest to understand?
AE 431: The 3 Australian Accents – General, Cultivated, & Broad
G’day, guys. My name is Pete and I’m the host of Aussie English. Welcome to this video. Today, I want to show you the three types of Australian accent. Let’s go.
So, if you’re learning Australian English guys and you’re wanting to perfect that Australian accent, make sure that you hit that Subscribe button and the icon next to it, the bell icon, so that you can stay up to date with all of my new videos.
So, quick disclaimer, guys, I am not a linguist. I am simply an English teacher specifically teaching Australian English and a lot of my students have asked me to put this video together to show you guys the main kinds of Australian accent.
As you may or may not be aware, there is quite a bit of variation in the Australian accent. Strewth!
Now we’re not going to cover every single variant in today’s video. I just want to cover the three main kinds.
And they are the Cultivated Accent. Hello! I’m Cultivated Pete and I speak Australian English with a cultivated accent.
The General Accent. G’day, guys! I go as I’m General Pete and I speak with a general Australian accent. How’s it going?
And the Broad Accent. Yeah, g’day, guys! I’m Broad Pete and I speak Australian English with a broad Australian accent.
Alright, so according to Wikipedia,
“The Cultivated Australian accent has in the past been perceived as indicating high social class or education. It has some similarities to Receive Pronunciation and the Transatlantic Accent.
So, some famous Australians who speak with a cultivated accent include actors Cate Blanchett and Geoffrey Rush, as well as ex-prime minister Malcolm Fraser. Let’s have a listen.
Yes. Well, no, I actually grew up in Melbourne and then I came to Sydney to go to the National Institute here, and… and then, got catapulted out and I thought, “Well, I’ll give it five years and see what happens.”.
Johnny Depp’s one of the great character actors of our time, I believe, trapped in the leading man’s body. He’s got the best of both worlds. He has a brilliantly absurd sense of humour.
Most people aren’t aware of it, but 1975 was, I think, the only year since the migration program began when more people left Australia.
Yeah, you blokes are just a bunch of posh c*nts.
Well, I never! How unsophisticated!
Yeah, I’m going to stay out of this one.
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Right, now the strongest Australian accent. According to Wikipedia:
Broad Australian English is recognisable and familiar to English speakers around the world. It is prevalent nationwide, but is especially common in rural areas. In Australia, this dialect is sometimes called ‘Strine’ or ‘Strayan’ a shortening of the word ‘Australian’, and the speaker of the dialect may be referred to as an Ocker.
Some examples of Australians who speak with a Broad Australian accent include ex-Prime Minister Julia Gillard, the Crocodile Hunter, Steve Irwin, and actor Paul Hogan. Let’s have a listen.
And I do meet women around the world, and really, the only thing they know about Australia is they might know something about kangaroos, something about koalas, and about that speech.
Do you miss The Outback? Oh, absolutely. First thing, get off the plane, mate, didn’t go home, BOOM! Straight into the bush. Free me swag out, camped under the stars, and I was healed up. That’s great!
Wonderful and weird at the same time. I had the rare and exotic thing of being the flavour of the month or flavour of the year almost for about a year at all. And then it all… If you have it sort of come out with another blockbuster, it’s all over. You’re forgotten.
Well, I do believe US “posh c*nts”, would refer to you broadies as ‘ocker’ or ‘bogan’, depending on your social proclivities or whether or not you have a job.
Yeah righto! F *ck off, mate!
Yeah. I’m going to avoid this one as well.
Last but not least, and the most common Australian accent that you are likely to hear is the General Accent. Okay? So, according to Wikipedia:
The General Australian English Accent is the most common of Australian accents. It is especially prominent in urban Australia and is used as a standard language for Australian films, television programs, and advertising.
So, aside from the average Australian, some famous Aussies who speak with a General Accent include actors Eric Bana and Hugh Jackman, as well as Olympic swimmer Ian Thorpe. Let’s have a listen.
Oh, it was so much fun and I’d sort of forgotten how much fun he can have and are allowed to have that work. You know, ’cause a lot of the movies I work on are quite dramatic and sometimes the sets are very very serious. So, to go to work where, you know, laughing your head off all day long was kind of encouraged and you didn’t get into trouble was so novel.
Two musicals early on, which shocked me that I was even up for a musical. You know, and I was an actor, theatre actor really. And then, I couldn’t get seen from films back in Sydney. This is way back in mid ’90s.
Look, I notice where the water moves. I notice, you know, how it’s around me, and if, you know, someone’s out with their kick, I hear that, and I kind of feel it. It does affect me a little bit.
I think we’re pretty much just your average normal Australian to be honest.
Also lower-class riffraff.
Yeah, these guys are a bunch of wankers too. Way too posh.
Alright, guys. I hope you enjoyed that video. That was meant to be a bit of tongue in cheek satire whilst also being educational and showing you some examples of the three most common accents that you will see when you come to Australia.
There are some other sort of variants that I will try to cover in the future.
Yeah, yeah, no, we do plumbing work also, yeah? Yeah!
And he goes, “Don’t be a hero, mate!”.
We got a good man up here.
Also, don’t forget to hit the subscribe button and the bell icon if you want to stay up to date with all of my videos, guys. I teach Australian English that is the focus of this channel. My job here is to help you better understand or better sound like an Australian English speaker.
Until next time, guys, I hope you have a ripper of a day and I’ll see you soon. Have a good one.
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About the AuthorI learn languages, teach Australian English, and love all things science and nature!
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By pete — 2 years ago
In this episode, I teach you how to pronounce “Would Not Have” in its different contraction forms, “Wouldn’t have”, “Wouldn’t’ve” and “Wouldn’ah”.
Note: “Wouldn’t’ve” and “Wouldn’ah” are never written in English. When said they’re still written as “Wouldn’t have”.[sdm_download id=”1065″ fancy=”1″]
Ep073: Pronunciation – Would not have = Wouldn’t have, Wouldn’t’ve, Wouldn’ah
G’day guys. Welcome to this episode of Aussie English. Today I’m going to do another pronunciation episode, and in today’s episode we are going to focus on the contraction of “Would not have”. And there’s a few different contractions. It gets more and more contracted depending on the speed at which you’re talking. When you’re talking with another native. So, you’ll start with “Would not have” and then you can contract the “Not” onto “Would” so you’ll have “Wouldn’t have”, and then not written but spoken you’ll have “Wouldn’t’ve”, “Wouldn’t’ve”, and then quite often if someone has a really strong Australia accent, I’m not sure about American or English, they could also say it like this but at least in Australia you’ll hear “Wouldn’ah”, “I wouldn’ah”, which is “Would not have”, “Wouldn’ah”.
So, you’ll have “Would not have”, “Wouldn’t have”, “Wouldn’t’ve” and “Wouldn’ah”. So again this episode isn’t necessarily to emphasise that you guys need to speak this way it’s more just to give you exposure to these different ways that “Would not have” is pronounced by natives without them realizing when they speak incredibly quickly so that you can understand what they’re saying when they’re saying it without having to ask them to repeat it and you’ll know instinctively.
So, I should probably cover first when and when not to contract “Would” onto the pronoun beforehand, such as, “I would”, “He would”, “She would”, “We would”, “They would”, it often becomes “I’d”, “You’d”, “He’d”, “She’d”, “We’d”, “They’d”, sometimes you don’t contract the “Would” because there are other words following “Would” that are contracted, and it just gets too messy and I think as a native speaker who listens you would just miss too much of the message if all of those words are contracted. For instance, if you have “Would not have” you can contract all of those words in different cases but because you’ve got three in a row it would be “I’dn’t have” or “I’dn’t’ve” and it’d be very weird. You wouldn’t really get the message. So, any time you negate the sentence, that is it’s in the negative, you use the word “Not”. So, “I would NOT have”, “I would NOT have done”, “I wouldn’t have time”. Any time the “Not” is in the sentence and it’s negated, it’s in the negative, you don’t contract “Would”, at least as far as I know it sounds incredibly bizarre when I try and um… think about saying “I’dn’t have” or “I’dn’t’ve”. It’s just not… it’s not said. So, don’t focus on that. But yeah, the little cheat is if it’s negated, if there’s a “Not” in there, you would have “Would” as it’s full word and then you would contract either or both “Not” and “Have” onto “Would” after the word. So, for example, “I would not have done that” can become “I wouldn’t have done that” or it can become “I wouldn’t’ve done that”. So, that was the conditional past tense but if it was just in the conditional then you would have “I wouldn’t have time”, “I wouldn’t have chocolate”, “I wouldn’t have that much to say”, etc. So if there’s a “Not” don’t contract “Would”.
Anyway, let’s get to some examples. So, say for example when talking about going to a party if, say, someone made you go to the party and they thought you didn’t have a good time you could say, “I wouldn’t’ve come if I didn’t want to”. So, even though that person is worried you didn’t have a good time you can say, “No no no no no, it’s fine.” You know, “If I didn’t want to come I wouldn’t’ve”. So, “I wouldn’t’ve come if I didn’t want to”, “I wouldn’t’ve gone if I didn’t want to”, “I wouldn’t’ve come if I didn’t want to”.
If someone’s moving house and you’ve offered to help the person move house and it turns out that moving has been a lot more work than that person anticipated before asking you to do it, and so, you say, uh…. spend the entire day pack their things, helping them move, unpack at the new house, and it takes a lot of your day up, the person could say to you “Oh look I’m sorry it took so long” and you could say, “If I didn’t want to help I wouldn’t’ve”. “If I didn’t want to help I wouldn’t’ve”.
Another example could be a couple go out on a first day and one of them is an incredibly busy person and has to rush to the date straight after work, you know, they… they’ve got to get the tram, they’re running effectively because they’re worried they’re going to be late, because of their busy schedule, and the other person might say “Oh… sorry we probably should’ve chosen a better day. Today was obviously a bad one for you.” And you could say, “No no no no. It’s fine. I wouldn’t’ve come if I’d been too busy”. “I wouldn’t’ve come if I didn’t want to come”. “I wouldn’t’ve come. But it’s fine. I wanted to come so I came.”
One last example could be that someone could say something to another person who gets confused and asks “Are you sure that’s what you meant to say?” and you could say in response “Yeah, I wouldn’t’ve said it otherwise”. “Yeah, I wouldn’t’ve said what I said if I didn’t meant it or if I didn’t want to say it. I wouldn’t’ve said it if I didn’t want to. I wouldn’t’ve said it if I didn’t want to”.
Note: Neither “Wouldn’t’ve” nor “Wouldn’ah” is ever written in English. Even if said this way when speaking, it’s always written as “Wouldn’t have”.
So, now let’s do a little conjugation exercise guys where I’ll just conjugate the conditional past tense, and I’ll go through the different contractions as they get progressively more and more contracted. So, listen and repeat after me.
I would not have…
I wouldn’t have…
You would not have…
You wouldn’t have…
He would not have…
He wouldn’t have…
She would not have…
She wouldn’t have…
We would not have…
We wouldn’t have…
They would not have…
They wouldn’t have…
They wouldn’t have…
So, we’ll do some more listen and repeat exercises here guys because I want to put these contractions into sentences with context around them so that you have a better way of remembering and understanding how and when you would use these different phrases.
So, the setup here for the phrases that I’ll go through afterwards is that someone invites you to a party and it’s inconvenient for you because you’ve got a really busy schedule but you make the effort to go to the party anyway. So, when you arrive they say to you, “Oh I know you were so busy. You should’ve just said you couldn’t make it, you know. Like, I realise you were busy and had other things to do, and that it was quite an effort for you to come. So, you should’ve just said, “Sorry I couldn’t make it.”” And then you could say, and repeat after me.
I wouldn’t’ve come if I didn’t want to.
You wouldn’t’ve come if you didn’t want to.
He wouldn’t’ve come if he didn’t want to.
She wouldn’t’ve come if she didn’t want to.
We wouldn’t’ve come if we didn’t want to.
They wouldn’t’ve come if they didn’t want to.
And now we’ll just go through some random sentences. So, again some listen and repeat exercises here, but this time I’ll say “Wouldn’ah” instead of “Wouldn’t’ve”. So, you get an opportunity to use both.
I wouldn’ah gone if I couldn’ah
I wouldn’ah come if I couldn’ah.
You wouldn’ah asked if you didn’ wanna know.
You wouldn’ah been much older than me.
He wouldn’ah shown up if he didn’t wanna.
He wouldn’ah stayed if he didn’t wanna.
She wouldn’ah been awake that late last night.
She wouldn’ah arrived by that time.
We wouldn’ah played football even if you’d paid us.
We wouldn’ah gone to bed much later than 10.
They wouldn’ah ever wanted to know.
They wouldn’ah seen you I’m sure.
So, you’ll notice int here also guys, I’m sure if you go back, that I also contracted a few other things like “Couldn’t have” I turned into “Couldn’ah” um… “Didn’t want to know” I turned into “Didn’ wanna know”, and there’s a few other ones in there. But again it’s just listen and repeat, practice this pronunciation stuff here guys. If you have a bit of an issue understanding what these sentences are saying when I speak with a really strong accent with a lot of contractions jump on the website, I’ll have for these episodes the transcript out so you can read it and then practice your pronunciation and this hopefully is going to really help you in understanding when other native Australians, and other native speakers as well who use these contractions, speak to you, you’re going to know exactly what they’re saying straight away. So, you’ll pick up on it, you’ll have heard it before when listening to these episodes and it’ll be like “Oh I remember that! Boom! It’s all good I understand.”
Anyway, this is a long episode guys. Thanks for listening. If you have any questions or any doubts or anything you want to talk to me about or suggest I do an episode in the future on let me know on Facebook, send me a message or a comment. If you can, also review the podcast on iTunes, that always helps, and don’t forget to click like on these Facebook posts and share it with any of your friends who are also learning English. Thanks for listening guys. All the best!
Check out all the other recent Aussie English Pronunciation episodes below.
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By pete — 4 months ago
Watch the video here!
AE 489: 50+ Most Difficult English Words to Pronounce
G’day, guys. What’s going on? Welcome to this episode of Aussie English. Today, I have 50 or more different and difficult-to-say English words. Okay. So, these were chosen by you guys on The Aussie English Facebook page. I put out a little message saying, hard words in English, give me a suggestion for a video, and this is your list. So, I’m going to try and go through all of these. I’m going to try and say them, maybe explain a little bit of the pronunciation that’s going on for these words, and then I’ll give you an example sentence of me using the word that I want you to repeat this sentence so that you can practice your pronunciation with me. Okay? So, the definition will also be down the bottom there, guys, if you would like to know more about how to use each of these individual words. I hope it expands your vocabulary. Let’s get into it.
Alright, guys. So.
1: encyclopedia. Encyclopedia. Notice where the emphasis is here. Okay. Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia. James has an encyclopedia.
2: colloquial. Colloquial. I speak with my friends using colloquial English. Colloquial.
3. This is a long one. This is a long one, okay? Antidisestablishmentarianism. Antidestablishmentarianism. Okay? So, to be honest, this isn’t one you’re going to use very often. It’s just kind of a joke, because it’s a very long English word, but an example of using this would be. This man supports antiestablishmentarianism. Antidisestablishmentarianism. See if you can say that fast, guys.
4: thirsty. Oh! thirsty. Thirsty. Notice with my Australian accent I’m not saying that ‘R’. Thirsty. Thirsty. Thirsty. I’m thirsty. I’m really really thirsty.
5: loyalty. Loyalty. Loyalty. Okay? Loyalty is an important trait. Loyalty. Loyalty.
6: colonel. Now, this is one that screws up a lot of people, even kids learning English. When they see this word and they’re like “Colonel? What the hell is a “colonel”?”. We would pronounce this as “colonel”. “Colonel”. Sort of sounds like a kernel of corn, right. Little bit of corn. Colonel. His father’s a colonel in the military. Colonel.
7: hungry. Hungry. Hungry. She is incredibly hungry. Hungry.
8: angry. Hungry – Angry. Okay? Say that with me. Angry. Angry. Why are you so angry? Angry.
9: ridiculously. Ridiculously. Notice where the emphasis is there. Ridiculously. This car is ridiculously priced. Ridiculously.
10: bespectacled. Bespectacled. Another one that is not that common. Funny word though. (It) means to have glasses on, right. Bespectacled. He is a bespectacled and studious young man. (He) loves to study and is wearing glasses. Bespectacled.
11: surreptitiously. surreptitiously. So, notice where those emphasis? emphases? emphasezes? Emphases. Notice where those emphases are. surreptitiously. Surreptitiously. Surreptitiously. James surreptitiously left the room. Surreptitiously.
12: towel. Towel. And that’s a difficult one, because of that vowel, ‘ow’, ‘ow’. Towel. Okay. Have you got a towel? Have you got a towel? Have you got a towel? Towel.
13: iron. Iron. In this example, I don’t pronounce the ‘R’. I would say this like, ‘iron’, ‘iron’, and there’s a ‘Y’ in there. Iron. A ‘Y’ sound. Iron. I’m going to iron my clothes. Iron.
14: world. World. Again, I’m not pronouncing that ‘R’. World. It sounds like ‘whirled’, as in you whirl something around. Wohoo! Whirl! But the world. It’s a big world out there. World.
15: redundant. Redundant. Notice that emphasise. Redundant. Redundant. What he said was redundant. (It) wasn’t required. Redundant.
16: jewellery. Jewellery. Jewellery. Jewellery. (It’s a) bit of a tongue twister there, because of the ‘L’ and the ‘R’. My mum loves jewellery. Jewellery.
17: another R-L word. Squirrel. Squirrel. Squirrel. Squirrel. Australia has no squirrels. Squirrel.
18: required. Required. Required. What is required for the job interview? Required.
19: hour. Hour. Hour. We leave in an hour. Hour.
20: phenomenon. Phenomenon. Phenomenon. Notice the emphasis. Phenomenon. Weather is an interesting natural phenomenon. Phenomenon.
21: anemone. Anemone. Anemone. Again, that emphasis on the second syllable. Anemone. This is what I used to screw up. I used to say “amenome” or… yeah, I used to screw up all the time in school. Anemone. You find sea anemones in rock pools. Anemone.
22: unbelievable. Unbelievable. Unbelievable. That story was unbelievable. Unbelievable.
23: thigh. Thigh. I’m always saying with ‘TH’ make a sandwich. The tongue is the meat in the sandwich. The teeth are the bun, I guess, the bread above the tongue. Thigh. Thigh. Okay? The ‘TH’ is difficult. The ‘GH’ is silent. So, it sounds like the word ‘I’ with ‘TH’ in front of it. Thigh. Thigh. My thigh hurts after running. Thigh.
24: dough. Dough. ‘GH’ that’s silent again. Dough. Dough. I made some dough. Dough.
25: clothe. Clothe. Clothe. In this case, the ‘TH’ is voiced. Your throat needs to be vibrating. Clothe. Clothe. As opposed to ‘cloth’ where it’s not vibrating, right. Clothe. Clothe. We clothe our children. We close our children. Clothe.
26: vegetables. Vegetables. Vegetables. So, it’s not ‘veggie tables’, right? Veggie tables. Tables made of veggies. It is ‘vegetables’. Vegetables. Eat all your vegetables. Vegetables.
27: comfortable. Comfortable. Sort of similar to ‘vegetables’, where we get rid of a syllable ‘vegetables’, ‘comfortable’. Comfortable. This shirt is pretty comfortable. Comfortable.
28: choir. Choir. Choir. Choir. I don’t know why this one spelt with a ‘CH’, guys. To be honest, it’s one of those really, really stupid words in English. Choir. Okay? Choir. They sing in a choir. Choir.
29: message. Message. Message. Not message. Not message. Message. Message. Did you get my message? I sent you a message today. Did you get it? Message.
30: massage. And it can be ‘massage’ if you want. There’s kind of two variants. Massage. 30: massage. Or massage. Massage. I’d probably say massage. Massage. She’s getting a massage today. Massage.
31: farrago. farrago. Notice where the emphasis is. Second syllable. Farrago. Farrago. It’s a farrago of fact and myth. Farrago.
32: bamboozle. Now this is a good one. Bamboozle. It just sounds good to say. Bamboozle. Bamboozle. The puzzle is going to bamboozle him. Bamboozle.
33: thread. Thread. Now make that hamburger with a tongue in the teeth, thread, and then go straight to the ‘R’. Thread. Thread. He had a loose thread in his shirt. Thread.
34: languages. Languages. Languages. Again, emphasis at the start there. Languages. Languages. How many languages do speak? Languages.
35. Now, this isn’t really a common one, okay, but you’ll hear this attached to other words. So, borough. Borough. Borough. You’ll hear this in words like David Attenborough, right. His surname, Attenborough. Which borough were you born in? Borough.
36: unequivocally. Listen to that emphasise. Unequivocally. Unequivocally. Unequivocally. Okay? This is unequivocally true. How I pronounce ‘unequivocally’ is unequivocally correct. I hope. Unequivocally.
37: thorough. (It) rhymes with ‘borough’, right. Thorough. The investigation was a very thorough. Thorough.
38. Not to be confused with ‘thorough’, through. Through. Through. Concentrate on that ‘TH’ sandwich. Through. Like ‘threw’ the ball. (It) sounds the same. Through. Except this means to go through, right, to go through something. We walked through the forest. Through.
39, and I was dreading this word. I hate this word. Anesthetist. Yeah, that’s it. I got it. I hate this word. Anesthetist. This is difficult because you have the ‘S’ and the ‘TH’. Anesthetist. So, you’ll say that ‘S’ and as you’re saying the ‘S’, poke your tongue into that ‘TH’ sandwich, say it, ‘S-TH’, anesthetist, right? Anesthetist. God, that one’s hard. Anesthetist. The anesthetist applied the anesthetic. And that’s the biggest problem. You’ve got the word ‘anesthetic’, which is related to ‘anesthetist’, but the emphases are different. Anesthetist. Anesthetic. I don’t know why, guys. I don’t know why.
40: unfortunately. Unfortunately. Unfortunately. Unfortunately, you didn’t win the lottery. Unfortunately.
41: jeopardy. Jeopardy. And I think I used actually mispronounce this as ‘jeopardy’. Jeopardy. Jeopardy. Okay? Jeopardy. Jeopardy. It’s not ‘geoparty’. It’s Jeopardy. Jeopardy. Though, ‘geoparty’ sounds fun. Maybe it’s a party where geologists. ‘Geoparty’. Jeopardy. You put everyone’s lives in jeopardy. Jeopardy.
42: repeatedly. Repeatedly. He said the word ‘repeatedly’ repeatedly. Repeatedly.
43: misogynistic. Misogynistic. Notice the emphasis there. Follow the eyebrows. Misogynistic, right? Misogynistic. Misogynistic. My father is rather misogynistic. That’s not true. He’s not really, but for the sake of this example, my father is a rather misogynistic. Misogynistic.
44. I also hate this word. Rural. Rural. Rural. This is a really hard one. Rural. Rural. He lives in a rural area of Australia. Nailed it! He lives in a rural area of Australia. Rural. Rural.
45: persuasive. Persuasive. That argument was persuasive. Persuasive.
46: sophisticated. Sophisticated. Sophisticated. They had a sophisticated conversation. Sophisticated.
47: judgemental. Judgemental. She’s very judgemental of other people. Judgemental.
48: threshold. Threshold. I’ve reached my threshold. Threshold.
49: mirror. Mirror. Mirror. What do you see in the mirror? Mirror. Notice that Australian accent. ‘Mirror’ as opposed to an American accent, “mirror”. Mirror.
50: walnut. Wall, nut. Got no nuts here. Walnut. She has eaten a walnut. Walnut.
51. I don’t know how you guys found this word. Jesus. Otorhinolaryngologist. Hopefully, I’ve said that right. Otorhinolaryngologist. I wonder if people who work with or as Otorhinolaryngologists take a long time to learn this word. You work as an otorhinolaryngologist. Otorhinolaryngologist. Okay. I finally got it.
52: Worcestershire. Worcestershire. I love Worcestershire sauce. Worcestershire.You’re only ever going to use that word with regards to the sauce Worcestershire or if you go to the place in England, Worcestershire or Worcestershire. Worcestershire.
53: authoritative. Authoritative. Notice the emphases. Authoritative. Authoritative. His voice was calm and authoritative. Notice to that very last ‘T’ is a t-flap. Authoritative. Authoritative.
54: impetuous. That’s a good one. Impetuous. I love the ‘P’. Impetuous. She made an impetuous decision. Impetuous.
55: plough. Plough. Another ‘GH’ that is silent. Plough. I plough the farmer’s fields. Plough.
56: conscientious. Conscientious. Conscientious. She’s a very conscientious lady. Conscientious.
And the very last one, guys, you got there. Well done. Well done.
57: vulnerable. Vulnerable. Vulnerable. Right. Vulnerable. The little boy was vulnerable. Vulnerable.
Well done, guys. I hope that helps. I’m going to do more of these sorts of videos in the future, so if you have a difficult word that you would like me to do a video on, put it in a comment below, guys, and I will compile a list, I’ll put together a list for the next one.
Anyway, guys, in the meantime, make sure you hit that ‘Subscribe’ button and the bell notification next to it if you would like to stay up to date with all the videos as they come out.
Also, make sure that you listen to the Aussie English Podcast. If you guys are learning Australian English, this is a free podcast you can download on your phone and you can listen wherever you are, whatever you’re doing, in order to improve your Australian English, or English in general, guys. So, check that out at www.TheAussieEnglishPodcast.com.
Anyway, that is enough from me, guys. I hope you have a ripper of a day and I will see you soon. Peace.
Otorhinolaryngologist. Far out. Otorhinolaryngologist. Jesus. Otorhinolaryngologist. I wonder if people who work with or as otorhinolaryngologists take a long time to learn this word.
You work as an otorhinolaryngolo… jesus. You work as an otolaryn… You…. F^&* me! Why is this so hard? You work as an otorhinolaryngologist. Yes, yes.
Definitions & Pronunciation:
1. Encyclopedia – /ɪnˌsɑekləˈpiːdɪɐ/ – a book or set of books giving information on many subjects or on many aspects of one subject and typically arranged alphabetically.
2. Colloquial – /kəˈləʉkwɪəl/ – (of language) used in ordinary or familiar conversation; not formal or literary.
3. Antidisestablishmentarianism – /ˌantɪdɪsɪˌstablɪʃmənˈteːrɪənɪzəm/ – opposition to the disestablishment of the Church of England.
4. Thirsty – /ˈθɜːsti/ – feeling a need to drink.
5. Loyalty – /ˈloɪəlti/ – the quality of being loyal.
6. Colonel – /ˈkɜːnəl/ – a rank of officer in the army and in the US air force, above a lieutenant colonel and below a brigadier or brigadier general.
7. Hungry – /ˈhɐŋɡri/ – feeling or showing the need for food.
8. Angry – /ˈæŋɡri/ – feeling or showing strong annoyance, displeasure, or hostility; full of anger.
9. Ridiculously – /rɪˈdɪkjələsli/ – so as to invite mockery or derision; absurdly.
10. Bespectacled – /bəˈspektəkəld/ – wearing glasses.
11. Surreptitiously – /ˌsɐrəpˈtɪʃəsli/ – in a way that attempts to avoid notice or attention; secretively.
12. Towel – /ˈtæɔl/ – a piece of thick absorbent cloth or paper used for drying oneself or wiping things dry.
13. Iron – /ˈɑeən/ – smooth (clothes, sheets, etc.) with an iron.
14. World – /wɜːld/ – the earth, together with all of its countries and peoples.
15. Redundant – /rɪˈdɐndənt/ – not or no longer needed or useful; superfluous.
16. Jewellery – /ˈdʒʊlri/ – personal ornaments, such as necklaces, rings, or bracelets, that are typically made from or contain jewels and precious metal.
17. Squirrel – /ˈskwɪrəl/ – an agile tree-dwelling rodent with a bushy tail, typically feeding on nuts and seeds.
18. Required – /rɪˈkwɑeəd/ – officially compulsory, or otherwise considered essential; indispensable.
19. Hour – /ˈæɔ/ – a period of time equal to a twenty-fourth part of a day and night and divided into 60 minutes.
20. Phenomenon – /fəˈnɔmɪnən/ – a fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, especially one whose cause or explanation is in question.
21. Anemone – /əˈneməni/ – a plant of the buttercup family which typically has brightly coloured flowers and deeply divided leaves.
22. Unbelievable – /ɐnbɪˈliːvəbəl/ – not able to be believed; unlikely to be true.
23. Thigh – /θɑe/ – the part of the human leg between the hip and the knee.
24. Dough – /dəʉ/ – a thick, malleable mixture of flour and liquid, used for baking into bread or pastry.
25. Clothe – /kləʉð/ – put clothes on (oneself or someone); dress.
26. Vegetables – /ˈvedʒtəbəl/ – a plant or part of a plant used as food, such as a cabbage, potato, turnip, or bean.
27. Comfortable – /ˈkɐmftəbəl/ – (especially of clothes or furnishings) providing physical ease and relaxation.
28. Choir – /ˈkwɑeɐ/ – an organized group of singers, especially one that takes part in church services or performs in public.
29. Message – /ˈmesɪdʒ/ – a verbal, written, or recorded communication sent to or left for a recipient who cannot be contacted directly.
30. Massage – /ˈmæsɐː(d)ʒ/ – the rubbing and kneading of muscles and joints of the body with the hands, especially to relieve tension or pain.
31. Farrago – /fəˈrɐːɡəʉ/ – a confused mixture.
32. Bamboozle – /bæmˈbʉːzəl/ – cheat or fool.
33. Thread – /θred/ – a long, thin strand of cotton, nylon, or other fibres used in sewing or weaving.
34. Languages – /ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒəz/ – the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way.
35. Borough – /ˈbɐrɐ/ – a town or district which is an administrative unit
36. Unequivocally – /ɐnɪˈkwɪvəkli/ – in a way that leaves no doubt.
37. Thorough – /ˈθɐrɐ/ – complete with regard to every detail; not superficial or partial.
38. Through – /θrʉː/ – moving in one side and out of the other side of (an opening, channel, or location).
39. Anesthetist – /əˈniːsθətɪst/ – a medical specialist who administers anaesthetics.
40. Unfortunately – /ɐnˈfoːtʃənətli/ – it is disappointing that
41. Jeopardy – /ˈdʒepədi/ – danger of loss, harm, or failure.
42. Repeatedly – /rəˈpiːtɪdli/ – over and over again; constantly.
43. Misogynistic – /məˌsɔdʒəˈnɪstɪk/ – strongly prejudiced against women.
44. Rural – /ˈrʉːrəl/ – in, relating to, or characteristic of the countryside rather than the town.
45. Persuasive – /pəˈswæɪsɪv/ – good at persuading someone to do or believe something through reasoning or the use of temptation.
46. Sophisticated – /səˈfɪstɪkæɪtɪd/ – having, revealing, or involving a great deal of worldly experience and knowledge of fashion and culture.
47. Judgemental – /dʒɐdʒˈmentəl/ – of or concerning the use of judgement.
48. Threshold – /ˈθreʃɔld/ – a strip of wood or stone forming the bottom of a doorway and crossed in entering a house or room.
49. Mirror – /ˈmɪrɐ/ – a surface, typically of glass coated with a metal amalgam, which reflects a clear image.
50. Walnut – /ˈwoːlnɐt/ – the large wrinkled edible seed of a deciduous tree, consisting of two halves contained within a hard shell which is enclosed in a green fruit.
51. Otorhinolaryngologist – /ɔtəʉˌraɪnəʉˌlærənˈɡɔlədʒist/ – the medical specialty concerned with diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.
52. Worcestershire – /ˈwəstəʃə/ – a pungent sauce whose ingredients include soy, vinegar, and garlic
53. Authoritative – /oːˈθɔrəˌtæɪtɪv/ – able to be trusted as being accurate or true; reliable.
54. Impetuous – /ɪmˈpetjʉəs/ – acting or done quickly and without thought or care.
55. Plough – /plæɔ/ – a large farming implement with one or more blades fixed in a frame, drawn over soil to turn it over and cut furrows in preparation for the planting of seeds.
56. Conscientious – /ˌkenʃɪˈenʃəs/ – wishing to do one’s work or duty well and thoroughly.
57. Vulnerable – /ˈvɔlnərəbəl/ – exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally.
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By pete — 2 years ago
AE 260 – Expression: To take something with a grain/pinch of salt
G’day guys how’s it going?
Welcome to this episode of Aussie English.
How has your week been?
I hope you guys have been up to quite a lot of English practice and just enjoying yourselves in general.
It is Friday morning here at the moment in Australia and we have just finished our heat wave.
So summer has been pretty interesting.
It’s been overall I think the hottest summer on record for Australia, but interestingly it has been I think the first summer at least in Melbourne where we didn’t have a day above 40 degrees Celsius.
So that’s pretty bizarre because most summers that we have we tend to have at least a handful of days, you know, several days, a couple of days in summer where we have the temperature get above 40 degrees Celsius.
I mean I remember one summer where we had eight days in a row we had a heat wave of all days above 40 degrees Celsius.
And I remember one of those days I was in the car and the car said it was 51 degrees outside.
I couldn’t believe it.
I couldn’t believe… It was horrible.
It was absolutely, absolutely horrible anyway.
This summer we haven’t had a day above 40 degrees.
It’s been insane.
And yet, and yet, on average the days have been still very hot and obviously enough of them to give us the hottest year on average on record.
So very interesting stuff.
And, more recently, we had a heat wave where we’re in autumn now, so autumn or fall, if you’re wanting to learn American English is the season after summer, obviously, when the leaves fall off the trees in America, but they don’t typically do that here in Australia unless you’re talking about American trees that are here or European trees that are here.
But we’ve had like 10 days of high temperatures in autumn.
It’s been very peculiar, and only now, only more recently has it finally started to rain after a cyclone hit Queensland and brought a lot more rain and colder weather.
So, finally, we’re getting past the heat and into some colder weather down here in Melbourne.
So, anyway, let’s get into the crux of this episode guys.
Today the expression that we are working on comes from Juliana from the Aussie English Virtual Classroom.
She suggested this expression “To take something with a grain of salt” or “To take something with a pinch of salt”.
So thank you Juliana for this expression.
This one’s a good one guys and you’re going to hear this all the time across all different dialects of English.
They will use this expression.
So let’s go through and define the words in the expression.
To take something with a pinch of salt or to take something with a grain of salt.
So the first one there, the first verb or the first word is obviously “To take”, “To take something”.
This is a difficult one.
This has probably 20 odd different uses in English.
It’s a very very common verb.
It’s probably one of the first verbs that you’re going to learn.
I’m sure a lot of you know how to use “To take”.
But let’s go through some of the different ways and I’ll give you a few example sentences.
So 1. “To take”, to get hold of something with your hands.
So to reach for something and hold something.
So you could say, “He leaned forward and took her hand. He held her hand”.
2. To remove someone or something from a particular place.
So, “I took my friend outside”.
3. To carry or bring with someone so to convey something.
“He took his books to school with him. He took his books to school with him”.
4. To accept or receive someone or something.
And that’s what it means in this example.
So ,for example, “She was advised to take the job offer”.
So, to accept it, to receive it, to take it.
5. To consume some food, drink, medicine or drugs.
“It could be time to take your medicine”.
6. To make undertake or perform an action or task.
So, “I took a deep breath”.
7. To require or use up a specific amount of time.
So, “It takes an hour to drive from here to Geelong”.
“It takes an hour to drive there”.
So those are all these different ways of using the verb ”To take”.
It’s a pretty versatile verb in English but in this instance if you take something with a pinch of salt or you take something with a grain of salt it means to accept or receive that thing like taking the job off.
You’re effectively taking what someone says or taking it as accepting it or receiving it, interpreting it personally.
So hopefully you get what “Take” is, “To take”.
“A pinch“ is a… It can be a verb “To pinch someone”, which means typically to grip someone with your thumb and finger.
So usually, you know, you grab their flesh, their skin and give them a pinch.
You… Well that’s the noun.
But you pinch them.
You use it as a verb, “To pinch them”.
So you grip it tightly with your fingers and press.
That’s “To pinch”.
But we’re using it as a noun here.
So “A pinch” can be the act of pinching someone.
So someone could give you a pinch by pinching you.
So you can use it as a noun or a verb.
But here it’s a measurement of an ingredient.
So, often you’ll have recipes in English where, you know, you’ll have a cup of sugar, two cups of flour, two eggs, some milk, you know, if you’re making pancakes or something.
And then at the bottom it’ll say “and a pinch of salt”.
So effectively a very very small amount of salt that you can pick up by just literally putting your finger, your thumb into the salt and pinching and then adding that to the recipe.
So it’s not really a very well-defined amount aside from the fact that it’s just a pinch, you know.
It could vary depending on the size of your hands.
But, “A pinch” is a very small amount of something in this case salt.
“A grain” is even more a smaller amount of that thing.
So it’s a single particle.
A small hard single particle of a substance.
So you could have a grain of salt or literally one piece of salt, one small particle of salt.
You can have other things like a grain of sand.
So if you went to the beach and you pick up a handful of sand that handful of sand is made up of probably thousands if not millions of grains of sand.
So single particles of sand.
And I guess to end obviously we need to go over what “Salt” is.
And I guess the definition of this is that it’s a white crystalline substance that gives seawater its characteristic taste and is used for seasoning or preserving food.
So, everyone knows what “Salt” is.
It’s that you’ve got salt and pepper on the table.
If you want to make something sweet you don’t add salt to it you’ll add sugar to it.
If you want to make something salty, obviously you don’t add sugar but you add salt to it.
So let’s define the phrase.
To take something with a pinch of salt, to take something with a grain of salt, it means to take something, to accept something, to receive something, but to maintain a degree of skepticism about whether or not it’s true.
So you could still doubt whether this thing is true although you accept it, or you may have doubts about its accuracy, about what’s being said or promised by someone.
So you’re remaining skeptical.
You’re taking something, you’re accepting it, but you’re still sort of like, “Yeah… I don’t know if it’s true. So I’ll give you the benefit of the doubt. I’ll believe you. But I’m going to remain skeptical until, you know, I see whether or not it ends up being true. I’m going to take what someone says with a grain of salt. I’m going to believe that, but I’m going to take it with a pinch of salt. So I’m going to accept it. But I’m going to remain skeptical. I don’t know if it’s true or not. So we’ll see.”
I looked up the origin of this phrase too.
I was interested in seeing where this came from and this one is probably one of the more ancient ones that I have actually looked up.
So the idea comes from food being more easier to swallow if you take the food, if you eat the food, if you ingest the food, with a small amount of salt.
And this is obviously why we add salt to food because it tastes better and it’s easier to eat.
So apparently this originates from Pliny the Elder, which I think is an ancient Greek philosopher who wrote Naturalis Historia in 77 A.D..
So, you know, almost 2000 years ago.
But he wrote down or translated an ancient antidote for poison saying that it should “be taken fasting plus a grain of salt”.
So the antidote should be taken while fasting as well as with a grain of salt.
So in Pliny’s Naturalis Historia that was written or translated in 77 A.D. it reads as the following:
“After the defeat of that mighty monarch Mithridates, Gnaeus Pompeius found in his private cabinet a recipe for an antidote in his own handwriting. It was to the following effect: Take two dried walnuts, two figs and twenty leaves of rue. Pound them all together with the addition of a grain of salt. If a person takes this mixture fasting he will be proof against all poisons for that day.”
So there’s a few words in there that even I’m not sure of.
I don’t know what “rue” is.
I assume it’s some kind of plant.
But effectively what he’s saying is that if this person mixes these things together as an antidote and then adds a grain of salt to it to make them easier to eat the person will be defended against poisons for a day.
So it’s an antidote against poisons and the antidote is easier to consume if you add salt to it.
So the basic idea then figuratively from this is that injurious effects, so being injured, can be moderated, so can be avoided or it can be controlled by taking a grain of salt.
So that’s the literal meaning sorry.
And the figurative meaning is that truth might need moderation with the application of a grain of salt.
And it didn’t enter common language until a lot more recently.
So it was likely influenced by classical scholars who studied ancient Greek and the texts of people like Pliny.
And the phrase first appeared in its figurative form in the 1600s, but only as “A grain of salt”.
And then the “Pinch of salt” variant appeared in the 1940s.
So that was a lot more recently.
Anyway three examples of how you could use the phrase “To take something with a grain of salt” or “To take something with a pinch of salt”.
So example number 1.
You are going to have a party and you invite all of your friends including your mate, Bill.
And Bill always seems to have an excuse as to why he can’t come to social events with friends.
You know, he’s busy with work, he’s busy with his family.
Maybe he’s just tired or he’s just busy in general or he forgot.
You know, he always has an excuse as to why he didn’t make it, why he didn’t come, why he couldn’t make it.
When you tell your friends that you called Bill up, he said that he’s definitely going to come to the party.
He can’t wait to see all your friends.
Your friends might say, “Well based on what he’s done in the past I would probably take that with a grain of salt.
So if I were you I would remain skeptical about what he says that he’s going to do”.
It may not be that he is lying.
It may be that he wants to come but based on what he’s done in the past it’s unlikely that that will actually happen.
So you should definitely take that with a pinch of salt.
You should take that with a grain of salt.
Bill always says he’s going to come but then ends up not coming.
So whatever he says should be taken with a grain of salt.
So remain skeptical.
Take it with a pinch of salt.
Example number 2.
This is a good one.
Imagine politicians or a political party.
In Australia especially, politicians always seem to make massive promises before an election.
So when we have an election where we’re going to vote in a certain political party or a certain political leader they always seem to make these crazy promises about things they’re going to do.
You know, they’re going to make the poor rich.
So they promise to do all of these things.
And a good example in Australia at least was that when the Liberal Party was about to be elected a few years ago they said that they weren’t going to cut the funding to the ABC.
And the ABC in Australia is the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
So it’s a national public broadcaster that’s owned and funded by the government.
So this gives us our news and a lot of TV shows, and it’s all free, no ads.
So they said they weren’t going to make any cuts.
They weren’t going to cut the funding.
So reduce the amount of money that the ABC would receive from the government before they were elected.
But then as soon as they got elected and they won.
Sure enough once they were elected the cuts came through.
So they stopped the funding or at least reduced the funding to the ABC.
Thus, when a politician or a political party makes certain promises about things they’re going to do you should take those promises with a grain of salt.
You should take those promises with a pinch of salt.
You should always remain skeptical.
Don’t just believe everything that they say, because they obviously have a motivation for saying it.
They have an agenda.
So make sure you take it with a pinch of salt or with a grain of salt, whatever they’re promising that is.
Example number 3. could be a car salesman.
Car salesmen, wherever you are in the world tend to be untrustworthy and dodgy guys in general.
And so “Dodgy” is kind of, yeah, that idea of not trustworthy, very shady.
You should always remain skeptical as to what they’re doing, what they’re saying, what they’re thinking.
That’s just ,yeah, very very very untrustworthy, very dodgy.
And that’s a slang term that’s very Australian and probably only used in Australia.
So imagine that you need a buy second hand car, and a lot of you guys who come to Australia are probably going to be in this position.
If you go to a car salesman who has, like, a lot where there are a lot of second hand cars and he sells them there.
That’s his business.
He’s selling preowned cars that were bought second hand.
So someone bought them new, drove them, and then sold them second hand to the car salesman or he bought them.
And then he’s selling them second hand, as opposed to first hand.
So you go to a car salesman’s lot and you find a car that you like, and you turn around and the car salesman is coming up with a massive grin on his face.
You know, he’s overweight, he’s fat, he’s sweating profusely, he’s incredibly excited and he’s wearing a very cheap suit.
So, you know, the stereotype of a car salesman.
And he says, you know, he walks up and you say, “What’s the price for the car? Is it in good condition? What should I expect?”, and he’s all, “It’s in perfect condition mate. It’s as good as new. It’s never had any problems. And it was only driven on weekends by a little old lady who only took it to church and she only took it to the shops to get milk and food. So it’s in great nick. It’s in great condition.”
And that’s one of those stories that we have where car salesmen will always say, “Oh yeah, it was owned by a little old lady who only drove it on Sundays to church”.
That’s a very stereotypical kind of saying where he’s effectively saying that it is not used a lot.
It’s in great condition because old ladies are not renowned for thrashing cars for being hoons and, you know, damaging the car.
So the car salesman’s reputation is obviously that he is very dodgy.
He’s money hungry.
He just wants to make a sale.
And so you should take what he says with a grain of salt, because it is very unlikely that what he is saying is true.
So he’s undoubtedly trying to make a sale.
He’s undoubtedly trying to take you for a ride, which means, you know, sort of trick you.
And so you should definitely take whatever he’s saying with a grain of salt.
You should be skeptical.
You shouldn’t believe everything this dodgy dude is telling you about this car.
It’s unlikely that it’s all true.
Maybe none of it is true.
You should take it with a pinch of salt.
You should take it with a grain of salt.
So that’s the lesson for today guys.
You should definitely not take this lesson with a pinch of salt because it is true.
That is what the expression means.
But I hope you get what it means by now and that you can go on and use “To take something with a pinch of salt” or “a grain of salt”.
Remember, it just means that something that is being said is unlikely to be true, but you’re accepting it.
So your staying skeptical, you’re going to say, “OK, I’m going to accept this for now, but I’m going to I remain skeptical until I see otherwise”.
So as usual guys let’s go through a little listen and repeat exercise here and work on our pronunciation.
Listen and repeat after me, and copy me exactly if you’re trying to copy an Australian accent.
Otherwise, just say these words and these phrases using whatever accent it is that you are practicing whether it’s the British one, the American one, whatever it is.
Listen and Repeat:
A grain of salt.
A grain of salt.
A grain of salt.
A grain of salt.
A pinch of salt.
A pinch of salt.
A pinch of salt.
A pinch of salt.
To take something with a grain of salt.
To take something with a grain of salt.
To take something with a pinch of salt.
To take something with a pinch of salt.
Now, that is me saying it at a more slow speed where I am enunciating all of these phrases incredibly well.
But I’m going to go through each one of these just quickly now showing you how I changed the pronunciation of the word “of” two just “ah”.
So, again, like we’ve gone over in previous episodes this is connected speech and it’s kind of how native speakers of English everywhere are going to contract this down to speak more quickly and more naturally.
So, “of” becomes an “ah” sound.
Listen and repeat after me.
Listen and repeat:
A grain_ah salt.
A grain_ah salt.
A pinch_ah salt.
A pinch_ah salt.
A grain_ah salt.
A pinch_ah salt.
To take something with a grain_ah salt.
To take something with a grain_ah salt.
To take something with a pinch_ah salt.
To take something with a pinch_ah salt.
To take something with a pinch_ah salt.
So there you are guys.
That’s the episode for today.
Just a cheeky reminder that if you guys are interested in trying the Aussie English Supporter Pack remember it’s just a dollar to try it for 30 days.
I know you guys are going to love it.
So definitely jump in and give it a go.
Today we’re going to have all this bonus content for this episode where I’m going to have a vocab glossary going over all the difficult terms in this episode, a vocab table for you to fill out and practice all of the vocab in this lesson, listening comprehension exercises, phrasal verb substitution exercises.
We’re going to go over the slang terms that are used, and we’re also going to go more in depth with pronunciation and connected speech as well as have a grammar exercise.
So it’s the kind of thing where you can go through and do all these exercises if you really want to work on all aspects of English or if you have specific areas that you’re trying to improve, that you’re trying to nail, like phrasal verbs or pronunciation, you can just pick these exercises out once you’ve signed up to the Aussie English Supporter Pack and do them each week based on what it is that you’re interested in.
Anyway, that’s enough for today guys.
I hope you’ve enjoyed this episode.
Remember don’t take it with a pinch of salt.
You don’t have to be skeptical.
That’s what this phrase means.
And I’ll see you next time.
All the best guys.
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