In this episode of Aussie English I interview my good friend and housemate Richard, who’s originally from Estonia in Europe. We talk about his experiences in moving to Australia, finding farm work here, getting visas, and a whole lot more!
Richard Interview: Moving To Australia, Finding Farm Work, Getting Visas & More
Unfortunately, I haven’t had time to transcribe the episode and place subtitles on it as it would take me at least 2-3 hours to do. If enough of you send me a message or a comment on Facebook asking for it to be done I’ll do it. Otherwise, I’m going to leave it as it is!
Check out all the other recent Aussie English Interview episodes below!
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About the AuthorI learn languages, teach Australian English, and love all things science and nature!
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By pete — 10 months ago
AE 462 – Expression: Pull Up Stumps
It was the most famous dismissal in the history of cricket. In 1948, Don Bradman strode to the crease to play the last of his 80 test match innings.
Then a special cheer on the field.
He needed just 4 to finish with a career average of 100. Incredibly, the greatest batsman of all time finished with a duck.
G’day, you mob. How’s it going?
Welcome to this episode of The Aussie English Podcast. This is the number one podcast for anyone and everyone wanting to learn Australian English. So, it is specifically for people keen on, interested in, passionate about Australian English, but if you’re learning American English, if you’re learning British English, it doesn’t really matter, guys, it’s all the same language, a slightly different accent, sometimes I might also use slang that is specific to Australia, but other than that the tips, the tricks, the language you can learn in this podcast, for the most part, is going to be useful anywhere in the world. Okay?
So, the Aussie English Podcast, guys, is brought to you by TheAussieEnglishClassroom.com. This is the online learning environment, guys, where I upload all the bonus content in the form of short courses. So, for instance, if you want to work on your pronunciation, there is a pronunciation course that teaches you all of the different sounds in English. It gives you different audio files so you can practice these sounds. It compares similar sounding sounds. It’s a really good resource if you want to improve your accent.
But then, there’s also courses that go with each of these expression episodes where you get a breakdown of the vocab in this episode. You will get a video explaining eight of the more complicated vocab words. You will get another video on pronunciation and connected speech so you can sound more like a native speaker.
And then, a third video at the moment, about the different expressions that I use in these episodes. So, this is the best way for advanced English learners, intermediate to advanced English learners, to really take it up a notch, get to the next level, and improve a lot faster.
Anyway guys, a quick mention too, if you want just the transcripts and the MP3s to the podcast, you don’t have to sign up to The Classroom. You can just go to TheAussieEnglishPodcast.com and you can sign up for a small monthly fee and you will get all of the transcripts, the words written down, for each of these episodes as well as the MP3s, ’cause I know plenty of you guys just want that material.
Anyway, the intro scene for today, guys, was from a clip from a documentary on YouTube that was made by ESPN. I will put this in the transcript so that you can check it out. But, it was all about Australia’s most famous cricket player Sir Donald Bradman and the fact that he only just missed out on getting an average of 100 runs per game. So, we’ll talk more about that in the Aussie fact today.
Anyway, let’s get into the Aussie joke, we’ll go through the expression, the definitions, the origin of the expression, some examples, a little listen and repeat exercise, and then the Aussie fact.
So, today’s joke, guys, is related to cricket, because the expression’s related to cricket, which is also why the Aussie fact is related to cricket. And for those of you who don’t know, cricket is that game played by the British colonies around the world, the Commonwealth countries, where you hit a ball with a wooden bat. Okay? And it tends to be played on a very large oval.
So, the joke.
There are two rival cricketers and they were talking. The first one says, “The local team wants me to play for them very badly.”. And the second one says, “Well, you’re just the man for the job!”.
So, okay two cricketers. The first one says, “The local team wants me to play for them very badly.”. Okay? I want to think about “very badly”. And then the next guy says… and this is the joke, “Well, you’re just the man for the job!”.
So, what’s going on here and why is this funny? Okay, it might be complex and might seem complicated at first. So, “badly”, the word “badly” can be used in two different ways. For instance, if I want something really badly, I want it a lot. Okay? I really want that thing.
Whereas, if I do something really badly, or very badly, I do it horribly. So, in this case, the joke is that the guy is trying to say that the local team wants them to play for him really badly, meaning they really want him to play for the team, they want it a lot, they want it badly. But the second guy here, is interpreting it as he’s a horrible player and that the team wants him to play badly, as in, they want him to do a bad job of playing. And that’s why he says, “You’re the man for the job, then!”, suggesting the guy is a horrible cricket player.
Anyway, (I) hope you enjoy that joke, guys. Okay.
So, the expression today is “pull up stumps”, “to pull up stumps”. This is one that I’ve heard from time to time in Australia. It probably won’t be used in America. In fact, I am almost certain it won’t be, because Americans don’t really play cricket. They’re not fond of cricket. It’s not a big sport there. However, it might be used elsewhere in the English-speaking world that’s part of the Commonwealth where cricket is very common.
So, this expression “to pull up stumps” came from Rocio in the Aussie English Classroom. She is a member in there. Every week I get the members together on Facebook, we discuss different expressions to put on these episodes, and this week’s was hers, and everyone voted on it. Good job, Rocio.
So, let’s go through the definitions of the different words used in the expression “to pull up stumps”.
So, “to pull”. If you pull something, it is to grasp a hold of that thing, to hold the thing with your hand, and bring it towards you. So, to pull something is the opposite of to push something. You bring it towards you by holding it, as opposed to pushing it, as in, forcing it away from you. “To pull”.
“Up” is pretty obvious, guys. “Up” is the opposite of “down”. It is upwards, towards the sky. If you pull something “up”, you’re lifting that thing upwards, you’re lifting that thing vertically. To pull something “up”. So, you’re pulling something “up”.
“A stump”. This might be the one word you guys might not know. “A stump”. This can be two different things. Usually, it can be the base of a tree. So, if you chop a tree down, you’re a lumberjack, you’ve cut a tree down with a chainsaw or a saw, the thing that’s left in the ground where the roots are connected to the base of the tree, but the trees are not there anymore, that is “a stump”. Okay? “The stump” of a tree. However, in terms of cricket, “a stump” is one of the three pieces of wood that is hammered into the ground that the batter has to protect with the bat. So, the bowler, the person who throws the ball or bowls the ball, technically, in the game of cricket, is trying to hit the stumps with the ball and knock what are called the bails off the top of the stumps, and if he does so the batter is out. So, that is what “a stump” is in terms of cricket.
So, what does this expression mean and where did it originate from? “To pull up stumps”, “to pull up stumps”. In cricket, “to pull up stumps” means to call an end to game play for the day. So, obviously, if you pull the stumps up, you’re pulling them out of the ground, the game’s over. You’re pulling the stumps up, you’re leaving the ground, the game’s over. So, that’s the literal meaning.
However, figuratively, it means to cease doing something or to stop doing something, at least for the day. Okay.
So, let’s go through some examples.
Alright, example one. This is the literal example. Imagine you’re a cricketer who’s playing a match and that you’re on the way to scoring a century, which is 100 runs. We call that a century. You know, like 100 years is a century, we call a hundred runs in the game of cricket a century. You’re nearly at 100 runs. You’ve got a bowler on the other team you hate facing. So, this guy… you’re scared he’s going to get you out, you’re scared he’s going to bowl you out. He comes out, he’s ready to take you out, but just as he’s about to start bowling his first over, and over is the first of six bowls that a bowler gets before you have to change bowlers, an over his six bowls. Before he gets to start his first over, it starts raining, and this is a blessing in disguise for you, because the pitch has to be covered. They don’t want water in the pitch. The players are called off the pitch and have to take a break. You know, maybe a smoko, although, it’s unlikely they smoke and the game’s ended for the day. So, as a result of your good luck, as a result of the game finishing for the day, it’s time to pull up stumps. It’s time to call it a day. It’s time to take a rain check. We have to play tomorrow when it’s not raining anymore. The rain caused the umpire to literally pull up stumps.
So, example number two. Okay, this time you’re out with your mates sinking a few cold ones at the pub. So, you’re sinking, you’re drinking, a few beers, a few cold ones at the pub, you’re having a few cold beers. It’s Friday night drinks. So, Friday night drinks in Australia is where you tend to go to a pub or somewhere you can drink alcoholic drinks with friends or with colleagues from work. So, you’re Friday night drinks where you head out after work after a long week, ’cause you want to kick back and relax, you know, and have a yarn with your mates. Unfortunately, your wife calls and says that you need to come home and have dinner. So, you forgot she was cooking dinner, she’s put together a lovely meal, and you need to go home, you need to rush off, and get back home and have dinner. So, you might turn to your mates and say, “Guys, look, I’m really sorry, but it’s time for me to pull up stumps and head home. My wife’s getting a little bent out of shape, she’s getting a little angry, she’s getting her knickers in a knot. I’m sorry I’ve got to bail. I’m sorry I have to pull up stumps.”.
The third example here. Okay. Imagine that you are a tradie. So, you’re a brickie, which is a bricklayer, or a sparkie, an electrician. So, you’re on a job site, you’re building a house, you’ve got there early in the morning with your work mates, you’ve been smashing out all the work having a laugh, and suddenly find out it’s lunchtime. You suddenly realise, “Ah! It’s lunchtime. It’s almost twelve o’clock.”. So, you might turn your mate and say, “Wow! Time really flies when you’re having fun, huh? I didn’t realise it was almost lunchtime. It’s time to pull up stumps and go grab some grub.”. Okay. And “grab some grub” is to grab some food. “Grub” is food in Australian English as a slang term. So, “Let’s go get some grub, guys. Let’s go grab something to chew on. Let’s pull up stumps and we’ll come back later on.”.
So, hopefully now guys, you understand the expression “to pull up stumps”. Remember, literally, in terms of cricket, the game of cricket, is to call an end to game play for the day, because you have to literally pull the stumps up, pull them out of the ground, remove those stumps, part of the wicket, and take them inside, you know, pack up.
Figuratively, though, it just means to cease doing something, and usually, just for the day. Okay? Just for the day. You might come back and do it later.
Anyway, let’s go through a little listen and repeat exercise, guys, and then we’ll have a little yarn, we’ll have a little chat, about cricket and Sir Donald Bradman. Okay?
So, in this listening exercise, guys, this is your chance to practice your pronunciation. So, try and mimic my accent if you are after the Australian accent. If you are not, then just say these words after me in whatever accent you are practising. Okay? Let’s go.
To pull up
To pull up stumps x 5
I had to pull up stumps.
You had to pull up stumps.
He had to pull up stumps.
She had to pull up stumps.
We had to pull up stumps.
They had to pull up stumps.
It had to pull up stumps.
Great job, guys. Remember, if you would like to go in depth, you know, do a deep dive into how the pronunciation here works and learn a bit more about connected speech, you can join up to the Aussie English Classroom, TheAussieEnglishClassroom.com. Sign up. It’s just one dollar for your first month. You get 30 days to get used to it, to give it a try, see if it’s for you, and you can cancel at any time if it isn’t. But I assure you, if you get in there and work hard, your English is going to skyrocket.
Anyway, guys. Let’s get into the Aussie English fact for the day.
So, today’s Aussie English fact is about Sir Donald Bradman and cricket in the early 20th century versus how it is today.
So, what made me think of Sir Donald Bradman? Well, “pull up stumps” is obviously an expression that is related to cricket, and I was thinking about cricket and how I could talk about cricket, what interesting facts or aspects of the game do I know about, and then, I thought about Sir Donald Bradman who I knew a little bit about, at least, I know a lot more about him now after having studied this, but I knew a little bit about him from my days at school playing cricket.
Anyway, I found a great pair of videos online. One of them was by a Cricket.com.au (watch it here), which I will link. This is on YouTube. And another was by ESPN (watch it here), which I mentioned at the start, and I sort of broke these down and took facts from them to compile into today’s Aussie fact.
Alright, so Sir Donald Bradman. Sir Donald Bradman was born on the 27th of August in 1908, so 110 years ago, nearly. And he passed away, he died on the 25th of February in 2001. So, what is that? He was 90-something years old. And he was the greatest cricket player of all time. Statistically, there’s no one even close.
His first cricket Test match was in 1928 and he played for 20 years until the end of 1948. On average, he scored 99.94 runs per cricket match, which is absolutely astonishing. And when you compare that to modern-day cricket superstars, Australians like Ricky Ponting or Steve Smith, he scores nearly two times as many runs on average. Insane.
So, Bradman was 12 years old, he was only 12 years old, when he first scored 100 runs in a cricket match, his first century. And as a kid, he would hone his skills in by spending hours hitting a golf ball against a round brick wall with a cricket stump in his backyard. And that’s insane when you think, a golf ball’s round, a cricket stump is round, and he was hitting it against this small brick surface, which was also round. So, there’s a really cool video online, which again, I’ll try and include in the transcript, guys, and it shows just how insane his hand-eye coordination was from training like this.
So, Bradman is so loved by the Australian public, there are stamps of him, books, coins, songs, TV series, and even a museum that’s been built in his memory.
What’s even more astonishing about Sir Don Bradman’s average of nearly 100 runs per game is that back in that early period of cricket, in the early 20th century, cricket bats were actually much smaller and lighter, which made it a lot harder to hit balls further and higher. So, you couldn’t as easily hit them to score fours or to score sixes. These are the numbers of runs. If you score a 4, that is to hit the ball along the ground, it bounces in the field, but makes it all the way to the boundary. And a six is when you completely hit it out of the ground. So, because the bats were so much smaller and lighter, instead of being able to just hit it out of the ground more easily, he had to try and weave it around the fielders, he had to try and evade and get past fielders and be much more of a cunning player. So, we can only imagine what Bradman would have done or would have been capable of if he’d had one of the modern-day bats to use back then.
Modern-day batters also done a great deal more safety equipment today including chest, thigh, and leg pads, arm and neck guards, and thick gloves, and a helmet. So, whereas in Bradman’s day, they only had leg pads and some simple gloves to cover the hand. And this made scoring runs even harder as you often had to get out of the way of the ball to avoid being injured. Whereas today, with all the protection, you are probably much more likely to allow a ball to hit you, at least, you would more readily do so, because of the protection you have.
The pitches on which cricket is played today as well are a great deal more advanced test and they are really well maintained compared to back in Bradman’s day when he was at his prime. There are teams of people who have full-time jobs as green keepers and curators dedicated to growing, manicuring, and maintaining the grass on these pitches, they flatten it, they paint it, they make sure that it stays dry and incredibly compacted, incredibly hard, keeping all moisture out so that the balls bounce really well on these pitches. However, obviously, in Bradman’s day, pitches were a lot less well maintained. They would suck in the moisture, they would be a lot less even, so the balls would bounce all over the place, and if it rained during the day, the conditions would change, because they wouldn’t cover the pitches.
Another big difference is the technology available today to cricket players. So, bowlers and batters can use apps and online technology now to find out and research about other people that they’re playing against. So, they can work out how to better bowl out batters or how to better avoid certain bowlers using sophisticated plans. In Bradman’s day, they didn’t even have TV, didn’t even have tele. So, nowhere near as much information was available about players, and more often than not, you would be walking out into a game blind. You would have no idea about what the other person or the other team was capable of.
Despite this, today’s cricketers believe that Bradman, if he were alive today, he would still give bowlers a run for their money and that they would find him to be a tough cookie as he would have found a way to get around them and counteract anything that they threw at him.
Fielders are also a great deal more athletic today. They dive, they leap, they jump, they try and catch balls a great deal more, and a part of this, as well as the skill of batters and bowlers today, is the fact that they can train every single day. This is their full-time job. Whereas, surprisingly enough, sir Donald Bradman had to train only a few days a week and outside of cricket he had to have another full-time job, because cricket just didn’t pay.
So, why wasn’t Bradman’s average 100? In the last ever game that he played in 1948, as you heard at the start of this episode, when he was about to play his 80th test match innings, he came out onto the ground, he only needed four runs in order to finish with a career average of 100, however, incredibly, the greatest batsmen of all time in cricket was bowled out for a duck, meaning that he was bowled out before he scored a single run. To be bowled out for a duck.
Anyway guys, I hope you will agree that Sir Donald Bradman was an amazing cricket player. Do you think he was the greatest cricket player of all time? And how do you think he’d go if he were to play cricket today nearly 90 years after he first stepped onto the pitch?
Anyway, guys. It’s been great chatting to you. I hope you have an amazing week and I’ll see you soon!
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By pete — 3 years ago
In today’s episode of Walking With Pete I chat to you guys a little about my experiences with dieting over the last few years.
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Walking With Pete: My Experiences With Dieting
G’day guys. Welcome to this episode of walking with Pete, even though I guess today I’m not exactly walking.
I thought I would try and video it. So, I’ve set it up just to use my phone at home. We’ll see how this goes. Who knows how it’s going to turn out? And, I’m just videoing it here in my bedroom and I thought I’d talk to you a little bit about diet today. I… I like to diet quite a bit. I change my diet up to see how different foods and different things affect my health and my um… just how I feel I guess, and I became a bit of a gym junky after I broke up with a girlfriend probably three, four, maybe even fives years ago now. I broke up with her and I was a bit overweight, and I was sort of uncomfortable about how… how I felt and how I looked, and I wanted to get a bit more… a bit more confidence back. So, I started going to the gym and obviously when you start going to the gym you start worrying about what you’re putting into your body, what you’re eating, and so, at that time I was more focused on just removing carbs, a lot of excess carbs, and things like… we use the word “carbs” in English to talk about carbohydrates. And carbohydrates are obviously sugars. So, anything from standard sugar to bread, to potatoes, so they’re starches, to different times of pasta. All that sort of stuff that’s carbs. So, carbs, um… anyway yeah. So, I reduced that, and for a while I was training at the gym probably four times a week just to do weights to try and get a little bigger, and prior to that I’d actually just been walking and running a lot. I think I was doing at one point about 10km a day, maybe five days a week, of walking and running, and within five months I lost about 20 kilos, which was… looking back now was pretty impressive, but at the time it didn’t really feel like much, I just, you know, was happy to be thinner and no longer as um… as big, soft and… and cuddly as I was. So, I did that and I was eating um… a really really high protein, which was also probably helping me lose weight but at the same time it’s not necessarily the best for your liver because your liver breaks down proteins and has to deal with all of that. So, my liver was working quite hard and I went to the doctor and he freaked out thinking I um… he looked at my blood. So, he took my blood and measured that and thought I had um… potentially the signs of early liver cirrhosis or cirrhosis of the liver, which comes from drinking too much alcohol, and that definitely wasn’t the case. And he also said something, I think along the lines of “it could also be hepatitis B”, which is a really um… a really bad disease to have, again, it definitely wasn’t that but um… So, I found out that it was effectively that I had too much, high protein in my diet. So, I reduced that and yeah, was just eating sort of a more balanced diet at the time.
Um… I started doing jiu-jitsu and then doing weights there, and I was putting on mass, getting bigger, and… what do I want to say? Um… after about maybe a year of doing jiu-jitus and looking into diets, because I wasn’t getting as lean as I really wanted to be, I came across the keto diet. So, ketosis, ketosis is where instead of relying on sugars and carbohydrates for energy in… in your blood, and thus, you know, having to worry about things like your insulin shooting up and down, and, you know, that’s sort of why diabetes ties into too much insulin production, not enough insulin production, so I sort of… I wanted to try ketosis because ketosis is actually a state that your body goes into when you lack sugar, when you don’t have sugar but you have a lot of fats. So, on a ketosis diet, [ketotic*?] On a diet um… in the keto diet you eat 90% maybe 80% fats, literally fats. So, oils, butter, avocados, all kinds of fatty foods instead of sugary foods, so carb foods, it’s just fatty foods. And in the absence of sugar in your blood your body’s actually forced to use fats. So, your body will use primarily sugars if… if it has access to them, and these things power your brain. So, it uses glucose to power your brain first and foremost and then also obviously every other cell in your body, but when and if you get rid of um… glucose your body will use fats, obviously all the fat under your skin, all the fat sitting around your body, the excess fat that it has. It’ll go into starvation mode and start using that fat to power your body and power your brain. And that was… that was a really really interesting time, because at first I was thinking “isn’t a high fat diet really really bad” but when you look into it it turns out that at least based on the information that I came across, that I read, that I saw, a high fat diet is bad only in the presence of ah… glucose. So, if your insulin goes up because you’re eating carbohydrates the insulin is there to deal with, to um… process the glucose, the carbohydrates, first and foremost, to get rid of that because it’s effectively a um… toxin ultimately. If you have too much sugar in your blood, that’s a bad thing and that’s why you produce insulin to get rid of the sugar. In the presence of insulin fat gets stored away. So, you make [and] store fats, wherever it is on your body you… you store fat in the presence of insulin. If you don’t eat carbs you don’t produce insulin and then the fat in your blood, it doesn’t matter if you’ve got a lot of fat it’s not going to get stored the same way in your body, and it also is tied into heart disease and everything. If you have insulin and glucose and carbohydrates, a lot of that in your body, in your diet then in the presence of a lot of fats that’s a bad thing, at least in layman’s terms, if I really simplify things. And I found out though that you can have a really really really high fat diet and if you completely remove carbohydrates, or near completely remove it so that you’re not spiking your in… insulin all the time, day in day out, um… it’s actually not a bad thing, and you don’t have to worry about things like heart disease and all these other things in the same way… So, anyway, I tried ketosis. I was doing that diet for probably a year. I literally did an entire with, on and off, little bits here and there of um… sugar and carbohydrates that I ate, you know, I had cheat meals every now and then, but for the most part it was just fats and protein, you know, 20% of my diet, the rest of it was just fats. Excuse me. And, for the most part in there too I was eat… I found myself eating more vegetables than I had ever had before in my life, because you can’t obviously… if you just have fats you’re just going to have a warm soup of fat and… and no one wants to eat that, but I found myself, you know, you have to use a heap of vegetables to soak up all this fat. So, ironically when I got on the ketosis diet and was eating more fat than I’d ever had, no carbs, close to no carbs, I was eating more vegetables than I had ever had either in my entire life, which was… which was something that I didn’t expect at first. And, it was really really interesting because at first you go through this haze when you no longer have carbs in your diet, you know longer have sugar, while your body is used to dealing with this sugar, even with eating all the extra fat when you suddenly switch diets your body can’t process the fat. So, the fat sort of… it… it [your body] processes what it’s used to but all the other excess fat [in the food] that it can’t currently deal with you pass through and don’t use as energy, and the glucose you’re not eating your body’s trying to find, “Where’s all the glucose? I need energy?!” And so, it was… it was interesting because I was for the first week I felt sick, like I felt tired, I had no energy, I felt like nauseous at times because I just had my body… it felt like I was starving, it was really really bizarre. It wasn’t pleasant but… the first week sucked, after the first week though I felt fucking amazing! Like, it is so hard to explain what it feels like when you’re in ketosis and the process of a… the um… being in ketosis is where your body can finally deal with these fats, and it’s producing enough enzymes to like break this down and use this as energy, the interesting thing was that I just no longer felt hungry, pretty much ever. There was no “I ate” when I knew I needed to eat and you know, you would feel somewhat, “Ok I can eat at the moment”, but you didn’t feel that up and down every two hours of needing to eat, which is what I feel when I’m on a carbohydrate based diet. I feel, you know, you have breakfast and then two hours later you’re like “EHHHH I’m so hungry!”, and then you have lunch, and then you know, two or three hours later you’re like “Ahhhh I can’t wait for dinner!”. And so, ketosis was so interesting because I realised how much hunger was really driving my… my attitude, I guess, and my personality to some degree, because every day that I was working or that I… whatever I was doing every day you would constantly have this thing in your head every two, three hours telling you “Ok I need to eat! I need food. What food is there? What can I eat! Oh my god, I can’t wait to have lunch!” you know, “What am I going to have for lunch? It’s going to be so good! I’m going to have a big sandwich, I’m going to have chips. I’m doing to do this.” So, you’re really ruled by your hunger to some degree where it’s always in the back of your head, it’s always there, it’s always kind of gnawing at your, you’re constantly thinking “Oh what’s the next meal! Oh I can’t wait to eat!” And so, it was so bizarre when I got onto ketosis and I got into a keto… a state of ketosis and my body… I could eat a meal and then I would suddenly realise that it’s almost midnight and I hadn’t eaten in 12 hours, and I hadn’t been hungry that entire time. It was weird. And the reason for that I think is that when you’re in ketosis, and this is part of the reason people get into ketosis, um… when you eat these high fat diets and you have fat stored in your body if and when your body needs fat, because you haven’t eaten, it just takes it directly from your fat sources. And so, this is why a lot of endurance athletes actually get onto a ketosis diet. So, you will find if you do a search for ketosis there are actually quite a lot of long distance runners and long distance ah… cyclists now that use the diet ketosis because they don’t have to worry about constantly drinking really high sugary drinks, or those, you know those little packets that they sometimes have that are like sugary gels, during marathons and and the Tour De France, and all that sort of stuff. If they’re in ketosis they don’t have to worry about it because they’ve got their fat stored on their body. So they just do their thing and when and if their body needs fat it just pulls it straight out of their fat stores.
So, that was amazing, but the problem was that I do jiu-jitsu and I do weights, and both of these forms of training in the gym are very um aerobic [anaerobic*] so they require a lot of oxygen [they use up all the oxygen and require the use of sugars, i.e. glycogen]. And so, I mean, I don’t really know the technical terms and all of this, and I’m probably really bad at explaining this, but one way or another ketosis the diet is good if you’re doing really low impact um… endurance sports where you’re at a constant steady rate of, you know, running or cycling or swimming [long distance], and you’re just… you’re doing a very long period at a very set, low, sort of intensity, but the sports and the weights training and all the gym stuff that I was doing was very um… [I] probably want to say anaerobic not aerobic, so correct me there. But, where I actually go really intense for a short period of time, so for about 30 seconds/a minute, it drops down, you know, you finish a set of weights, you finish a little bit of a scramble or fight in jiu-jitsu, and then you rest and then you do it again. And so, you have these… it’s like HIIT training, High Intensity Interval Training, these really high bursts of training as opposed to just a flat, steady rate of… of um… intensity like in running [long distance] or like in um… in cycling [long distance]. So, it’s kind of like sprinting, I guess, or, you know, sprinting in cycling or sprinting in running. And, because I didn’t have glucose in my body, my body just couldn’t handle it. So, it was weird because while I was doing jiu-jitsu and while I was doing weights I felt like I could be there for hours doing it at a low intensity, but as soon as I needed to be able to turn it up and do 30 seconds to a minute of high intensity work, such as fighting someone or such as doing really heavy weights or… for that period of time where I… I need the energy, the glucose, the short-term energy to be able to deal with those situations, and the ketosis diet didn’t… didn’t allow me to do that. There was no sugar in my blood so I couldn’t do that rapid use of energy, and I was absolutely ruined all the time in jiu-jitsu. And so that’s what was really funny. I had to get off of the ketosis diet. After about a year I got off the ketosis diet and got back onto a carb based diet but I tried to avoid simple carbs, [I] tried to have more complex carbs that um… didn’t illicit an insulin response as rapidly. So, if you have complicated carbs your body has to break them down and it takes a little longer. So you don’t shoot your insulin up rapidly like that and then come back down. You sort of do it over a longer period of time during the day when you want to deal with these carbs. So, I got on that and within a week I was at my, what I’d been pre-ketosis when I was um… training again, and it was really bizarre how much a diet could affect my abilities when I was doing those um… high intensity sports. Anyway.
This is probably dragging on a bit but I thought it would be interesting for anyone who’s interested in training and likes the gym and likes talking about diets. More recently, I watched a TV show called Gut Reaction. So, it was a Catalyst program, sort of a um… a news program or a little documentary on gut bacteria and how much gut bacteria are actually influencing our health today, modern… modern society’s health, and what junk food and really processed foods are doing to our gut bacteria and the interplay between gut bacteria and everything else in your body. It’s really bizarre when you watch this doco you don’t realise how much everything is actually potentially linked to the health and state of your gut flora. So, “flora” like um… plants, we call gut flora the gut bacteria that live in your gut. Anyway, so the program, to sum it down, effectively said you need to have a lot more dietary fiber. And so, I’ve been having all of these sorts of things like um… shakes every day where I have a… we have this bullet at home, it’s called a Nutri-Bullet, and it’s like a blender, a really really industrial sort of blender where you could probably put rocks or glass or CDs or something in there and it would blend it into a powder. Anyway, I use this Nutri-Bullet to blend up all sorts of things like avocado and banana and a bit of orange juice to give it a bit of um… sweetness but then I put a whole heap of celery, silver beet, um… kale, and chia seeds, a lot of other things that have fiber in them, and I put those into the… into this… it almost looks like um… baby food in the end. You end up with like a little jug about this big full of this green liquid. [I] drink that and I felt amazing. I’ve been doing that for probably about a month or two now once a day as a meal, and that feels absolutely amazing. And then after this Catalyst program that sort of reaffirmed what I already um… what I already had believed about gut flora, I started drinking a shot of apple cider vinegar, and you probably can’t see that very well and it’s probably backwards, apple cider vinegar every morning as I get up, and this is the most brutal brutal thing I think I have ever put in my mouth. And I have put… I have put quite a few gross things in my mouth, food wise, food wise! Um… yeah, this is the most brutal brutal drink. It is just so acidic that I just want to do a shot too because I don’t like the taste and drinking a glass of water diluted a bit with this would be sort of a slower death, if you will. Give me a quick painful death as opposed to a slow slightly less painful death. Um, anyway, yeah, so that’s been burning my throat but I drink something straight after it really quick and it’s been making me feel really really good. And so, the health benefits on um… on the Catalyst program were amazing and there was a whole heap with regards to reducing inflammation in your body, helping with arthritis and asthma um… and just making your body a lot more alkaline. So, you don’t want it to be acidic where you’re inflamed or you… you’ve got a lot of inflammation in your body. If you… ironically if you drink something that is acidic it doesn’t um… it doesn’t increase the acidity in your body because your body’s not producing an acid to have to break it down. So, it’s already acidic. It doesn’t have to produce um… as much stomach acid in order to deal with it, and it’s related anyway. I’m not an expert on these things. I’ve just been trying them, and it’s been really interesting, and I thought I would make a quick episode on it, and also experiment with making it a video to upload to YouTube and… and see what you guys think. So, definitely give me some feedback. Um… if you like the video give a thumbs up. Let me know what you think in a comment. I’ll also make it a podcast episode just so I can kill two birds with one stone.
And yeah, um… if you guys want to support the Aussie English um… podcast then check out AussieEnglish.com theAussieEnglishPodcast.com and suss out the… the donate page. So, I’ve got set up a donation page ah… where you can donate, you know, a few dollars a month if you want, if… ‘Cause I don’t really have anything to sell currently at all. I’m going to try and come up with some products in the future, but I’ve got a Patreon page that’s linked through the donate site on www.TheAussieEnglishPodcast.com and you can always sign up to donate a few dollars a month if you’re interested. Anyway, you don’t have to. It’s just an option if you want to support the podcast. So, that’s probably enough for today guys. I might break this episode down and come up with some expressions to work on in the future, ‘cause I can remember I’ve dropped a few here. And I’ll chat to you next time. All the best!
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By Admin — 10 months ago
AE 456 – Expression: Burn the Candle at Both Ends
G’day you mob! How are you going? What is going on? I hope you’ve been having a great week.
I am down in Geelong this week hanging out with a mate. So, I’ve come down to visit here. I’m staying at his house while his folks, his parents, have gone over to Greece for six weeks. So, James’s folks have a pet cat, and James also has a pet cat, and his folks also have plants that need to be watered, and so, he’s decided to move in here to his folks’ house where he used to live a long time ago and take care of his cats. But one of them’s really funny. One of them is terrified of other humans. So, I don’t know why. It’s just always been that way, but it pretty much only likes James’s dad and maybe James a little bit, but everyone else it runs away from or isn’t seen at all. So, I’ve only seen that once or twice (in) the last few days. But his other cat, his cat, the one from his house, which is also here, is absolutely lovely. I love Thomas. He’s a funny can’t. You may’ve seen him in some of the recent vlogs that I’ve put up on YouTube.
Anyway guys, so today, it’s another expression episode. We will go through some announcements, a joke, we’ll go through the expression, what it means, the different words in it, where it came from, some examples, the listen and repeat exercise, and then an interesting Aussie fact, which will be about whaling in Australia today.
Anyway, guys, let’s get into it.
So, this is the Aussie English Podcast, guys. If this is the first time that you are listening, welcome! It’s great to have you here. This podcast is for intermediate to advanced learners of the English language. There’s no handholding here, guys. I speak to you as a native speaker, naturally. I don’t change how I would talk. I try and treat you guys as I would anyone else who was having a conversation with. So, that is the whole point. These resources here are for you and they are to try and help you get from intermediate to advanced in English, in general, but also obviously to help you learn Australian English, whether that’s the slang, the culture, the history, all of that sort of stuff related to Australia and Australian English. The Aussie English Podcast is the podcast for you, guys. So, thanks for joining me.
The Aussie English Podcast is brought to you by the Aussie English Classroom and this is the online learning platform where you will get all the course material for this episode and a lot of the previous episodes. So, if you want to learn English and you want to learn it fast, and you like studying and doing listening comprehension quizzes, learning new vocab, learning new expressions, watching videos, all of that sort of stuff, go to theAussieEnglishClassroom.com and enroll. The first month is just one dollar, guys, and that’s how I keep the lights on. So, please check it out and give it a go if you want to upgrade your English.
Anyway, (that was a) bit of an intro, but let’s get into the Aussie English joke for the day, guys. The joke is: how do you make a candle burn longer? How do you make a candle burn longer? You can’t. They only burn shorter. (Do) you get it? You can’t. They only burn short.
So, how do you make a candle burn longer? The joke here being that longer can mean longer as in a duration of time, but it can also mean a physical length of something. So, a candle, when you light a candle and the candle is burning, it reduces in size. So, it’s a long thin thing that has a flame at the top of it and as it burns it reduces in size. So, it gets shorter.
But the joke here is that we want to know how we can make a candle burn for longer, like a longer amount of time, and the joke here is that they only get smaller in size.
Anyway, (I) hope you like that joke, guys. I know they’re always dad jokes, but these are clever puns that will help you understand more about Australian English and English in general. Okay?
So, today’s expression: ‘to burn the candle at both ends’. ‘To burn the candle at both ends’. This one comes from Dan who is in the Aussie English Classroom. Every week we get in the private Facebook group and we vote on these expressions. Dan put this one forth this week and everyone decided this was the best one. So, good job Dan. So, let’s go through and define the words in the expression ‘to burn the candle at both ends’.
So, ‘to burn’, ‘to burn’ is obviously a verb, ‘to burn’, ‘to burn’, and it means to be or cause to be destroyed by fire. So, if you put a piece of wood in the fire place and the fire’s obviously alight, the wood burns.
‘A candle’. ‘A candle’ is a long, usually, usually a cylinder or block of wax or tallow or, back in the day, it could be a whale oil, we’ll get to that in a bit, and it has a central wick. That is the piece of string with in the candle. It’s called a wick. And this is what is lit and produces light as it burns. So, a candle, when you light the wick in the candle, the substance the candle is made out of melts a little bit and is used as fuel. It gets soaked up the wick and it burns. So, if the lights in the house go out because of a blackout, you know, the power pole has come down in a car accident, you’ve got no electricity, you might use candles so that you can see if it’s night time.
Alright, the last word here ‘the end’ of something. So, ‘the end’ of something. This can mean a few things. It can obviously mean the final part of something like a movie, the end of a movie is the last few minutes of a movie. But in this sense, it’s more the furthest or most extreme part of something. So, for instance, the end of a bed. You might sit on the end of a bed. You might open a packet of food with the end of a knife, the tip of a knife. That is the end of something. The first or most extreme part of it.
So, let’s go through and define the expression, guys. If you burn the candle at both ends, I wonder if you guys have heard this one before, it means to overwork yourself, to exhaust yourself by doing too much, by doing too many things, especially, when you’re doing these both late at night and early in the morning. So, you’re living a hectic life. There’s a lot going on. It’s not sustainable. You’re overworking. You’re exhausting yourself.
And so, the modern idea of this expression, and we’ll get in to the original meaning, but the modern meaning, is that you’re using up the evening, you’re burning one end of the candle, the evening, and you’re getting up early in the morning, and using up the morning, and you’re burning the other end of the candle. So, if you imagine in your head that, in this case, the candle, which has a wick, which goes through the entire thing. You can light either end of a candle. If you imagine that candle is the night time where you would otherwise sleep, if you’re burning both ends of the candle, you’re working hard into the night and you’re getting up early in the morning to work. So, you’re reducing the length of your sleep, or of the evening, of the night. Okay? So, that’s burning the candle at both ends.
But the expression origin, guys, it didn’t have that idea when it was first coined. So, it was first coined in the 18th century, I think, the first use in English was in around 1730. However, it was used in French as far back as 1611: “Brusler la chandelle par les deux bouts.”, which means “to burn the candle by the two ends”. So, both ends, though, in this case were a physical reference to the ends of the candle and not the ends of the day. Okay?
So, back in the day candles were a useful and very valuable thing, and the notion of wasting a candle or suggested by lighting it at both ends was incredibly reckless. It was a bad idea. And so, this idea was that the only way for candles to be lit by both ends was to hold it horizontally, the wax, if it was lit, horizontally, would drip away from the candle and not burn, and you would waste the candle. It would be very unproductive. So, that was burning the candle at both ends. Okay?
So, let’s go through some examples, guys, of how I would use this in everyday English.
Alright, so example number one. I remember when I was at university. I was doing my bachelor’s degree in science and there were many kids there studying other things like commerce, and arts, law, medicine, all those kinds of subjects. But a lot of these kids, despite studying a lot and having to be there five days a week, you know, for eight hours, they were involved in sports. So, they had signed up for a sports team. They were playing footy, or hockey, or maybe doing athletics, or swimming, which required them to train several times a week. So, they’d have to get ready for games on the weekends or competitions on the weekends and they’d have to train with the team. So, students were often in a situation where they were studying late at night for exams, but then getting up early in the morning to train. And so, if this is the case, which it was, they were burning the candle at both ends. Their life was very hectic. They were very busy. They were overworking. They were exhausting themselves. They were working late into the night, and then waking up early in the morning. They were burning the candle at both ends.
Example number two. So, in this case, imagine that you have graduated from university after working your arse off, being on a team and burning the candle at both ends in that time, in that period. Imagine now you’re at university. You’re working as a lawyer for a law firm, and you’ve carried across, you’ve maintained that work ethic. So, now you’re trying to impress your new boss by getting to work really early in the morning, working all throughout the day, and then staying late into the night to get as much done as possible. You’re hoping that this will lead to potentially a promotion or something like that. If you’re doing this continuously, obviously, it’s unsustainable, and it’s incredibly hectic, it’s a the high-paced life, you’re burning the candle at both ends. You’re overworking yourself. You’re living a hectic life. Late nights, early mornings. It’s unsustainable. You’re burning the candle at both ends.
And number three here, guys. Example Number three is a personal anecdote. When I first tried getting Aussie English off the ground, so this was back in the day when I was starting my PhD, maybe six years ago, five years ago, I can’t remember the exact year, but when I was first trying to get Aussie English off the ground, I was studying my PhD, which was, you know, five-six hours a day, five days a week, I was trying to organise a website, create the content for the podcast episodes, put them online, have a Facebook page, have a YouTube page, and so it required a lot of work. And I was also training at the gym five days a week doing jujitsu at this time. So, I felt, at least looking back on this time, I was burning the candle at both ends. I was overworking myself. I was staying up late, getting up early. I was burning the candle at both ends.
So, hopefully now, guys, you understand the expression ‘to burn the candle at both ends’. This is to overwork or exhaust yourself by doing too much, by doing too many things, especially, both late at night and early in the morning.
So, as usual, let’s go through a little listen and repeat exercise here, guys, where you guys can practice your pronunciation, whether you want to sound like an Aussie or not this a good excuse to just speak out loud, say these sentences, say these words, and focus on your pronunciation. If you want an Aussie accent that’s awesome, try and copy me exactly. If you just want to perfect your English in general, ignore my exact pronunciation of each word and focus more on the rhythm and the intonation. Okay? So, let’s go
To burn the
To burn the candle
To burn the candle at
To burn the candle at both
To burn the candle at both ends x 5
I was burning the candle at both ends
You were burning the candle at both ends
He was burning the candle at both ends
She was burning the candle at both ends
We were burning the candle at both ends
They were burning the candle at both ends
It was burning the candle at both ends
Great job, guys. Remember, if you want to work on this pronunciation exercise, as well as all previous ones, for every single lesson like this expression episode in the Aussie English Classroom you will get some kind of content that breaks this down. And more recently, these have been ten-minute videos where I go step by step through all the little changes in pronunciation like ‘to’ becoming ‘to’ and the words ‘both ends’ joining together with connected speech like ‘both_ends’. Okay? So, I go through all that sort of stuff. If you want to perfect your accent in Australian English or in English in general, because these rules apply to all English, then join up and give it a go. Remember, it’s just one point for your first month.
Alright, so today’s Aussie English fact. Today’s Aussie English fact is the history of whaling in Australia. Now, why did I pick this? What has this got to do with the expression, ‘to burn the candle at both ends’?
So, some of you might be thinking, “Well, whales were whaled to get oil to make fuel to use in lamps and in candles.”. And so, that was my train of thought. When I thought of what I could connect to the expression ‘to burn the candle at both ends’, I thought, “Okay. Candles, fuel, Australian history, whaling! Ah, this’s a good one!”.
Alright, so whaling did occur in Australia, and it was actually the number one industry in Australia after the colonists first arrived in 1788.
So, the first whaling station was located in a coastal town called Eden, which is in the south east of New South Wales, right on the border of Victoria and New South Wales. And soon after this period, there were whaling stations all around Australia, as well as on a few islands like Norfolk Island.
So, it was a booming industry between 1790s and the 1850s, and British colonies were not the only colonies to thrive off whaling in Australian waters. The US as well as Norway had a lot of ships hunting for whales off the shores of Australia as well. So, it was obviously a very lucrative business back in this period.
Whaling became a little less attractive in the 1850s in the face of the Australian Gold Rush. This was when they discovered gold in places like Bendigo, and, I think, Bathurst as well. I’m not sure, but there was somewhere in New South Whales too where they found gold in the 1850s. And so, obviously, it’s a lot more appealing to go into the Australian bush and look for gold in creeks and rivers near towns, etc., as opposed to getting on a ship and going away to, you know, sea for months at a time and potentially dying.
So, whaling reemerged as a revived industry in the 1900s, and this was thanks to the invention of the steam boat as well as the harpoon gun. So, both of these inventions, a steam engine used in boats to power boats so you no longer had to sail, and the harpoon gun, obviously, an explosive spear-throwing weapon, made whaling a great deal more efficient. So, it was a lot easier to do your hunting and get out in the ocean, etc..
So, whale stations increased during this time despite the decreased demand for whale oil as petroleum was invented around this time, and I think vegetable oil was also starting to be used for different things.
So, whales were hunted for numerous reasons. Whale oil was used in lamps and it was used to make soap and things like margarine. And whale meat was processed and traded and, you know, canned and sold overseas and around Australia. And the whale bones were used to make corsets, umbrellas, and things like wigs, which I found out. I never knew this.
Numerous species were targeted by the whaling industry, and these species included whales like, sperm whales, blue whales, humpback whales, southern right whales, fin whales, and even sei whales, and they were all hunted for different reasons depending on the different attributes of each of these whales. Notice there too they’re all baleen whales. So, these are the whales that have baleen, that thick hair-like structure in their mouth, and they use it for catching fish and krill and, you know, small animals in the ocean. They’re not toothed whales. So, I don’t think they were ever hunting things like orcas, killer whales, or dolphins around Australia, at least not to the same extent.
So, whaling was banned in Australia in 1978, and today, these whales are all classified as either vulnerable or severely endangered, although, the good news is that populations are increasing by about 8% a year as of 2015.
The International Whaling Commission, the IWC, was formed in 1946 to regulate the whaling industry and protect whales, and Australia was a member as of 1948.
So, as of 1999 the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act states that: the Australian whale sanctuary includes all Commonwealth waters within the sanctuary and it is an offence to kill, injure, or interfere with a whale and it will result in severe penalties for those who are convicted.
So, countries like Japan, Norway, and Iceland still participate in commercial whaling, even though there is an international ban that was implemented in 1986. However, these countries find a loophole in the system by saying their purpose for whaling is scientific research.
So, I thought I would finish up here, guys, sharing a little bit of my views on this and try to help you understand the Australian point of view, because I know I have some Japanese listeners, and some of them feel very passionate about whaling.
From the Australian standpoint, we just don’t like whales in our waters around Australia being hunted. It’s not something that modern Australia can remember doing. It’s a very old industry so they don’t tend to be any people who used to be involved in it around still.
Sea Shepherd is a bit of a controversial group that, you know, goes out there and harasses a lot of the whalers in the Australian waters and elsewhere in the world. A lot of people support them, but also condemn them. I tend to support them, because I don’t like the idea of whaling. But it’s one of those things where it is hard to argue against as well when it’s a cultural practice, though, that’s where things get murky. If it’s cultural, that’s fair enough, but if it’s being misrepresented as scientific when it’s not really scientific, that’s another problem. Okay?
Anyway, those are my sort of views. I like whales. I think they’re incredibly intelligent and I don’t like them being hunted. But at the same time, I am somewhat hypocritical, because I still eat meat. You know, I still eat cow, I still eat chicken. So, why I’m okay with one and not the other? There you go. I just feel uncomfortable with whales being killed.
Anyway, that’s it for today, guys. I would love to know your thoughts. Do you think whaling is okay? Do you think it’s not okay? Let me know what you think and I’ll chat to you next week. See you, guys.
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