I’ve started putting together short videos where I interview native speakers of Aussie English. Each video will be a response from multiple people to the same question. It’ll be a good chance to practice your listening and reading comprehension with audio and subtitles at the same time. The episode will also be uploaded to the podcast on iTunes.
Today’s question is “What is the real Australia?”
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About the AuthorI learn languages, teach Australian English, and love all things science and nature!
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By pete — 1 year ago
AE 388 – Interview: Scottish Accents, Favourite Movies, & More with Christian from Canguro English
G’day, guys. Welcome to this episode of Aussie English. Today is another Aussie English interview episode. So, this episode was relatively impromptu. It was unexpected. It was spontaneous. And it was on Instagram. This was the first interview that I’ve done on Instagram. So, I got on Instagram. If you haven’t checked it out, go to Aussie English on Instagram. I have an account there, obviously, and I was on there fiddling around and I was chatting to Christian from Canguro English, recently, and he suggested that we do a live class together. So, apparently, before I actually realised that you could do this, you can do live classes on Instagram. So, we did that tonight. We were chatting about all kinds of different things in the live class. We were talking about different accents in English comparing American English, British English, Australian English, and talking about the difficulties that you may or may not have when travelling in these different countries if you have only been exposed to a single kind of English. We also talked about our experiences learning languages, whether bad pronunciation is worse than bad grammar, or good pronunciation vs. good grammar. If you had to choose one, which would be the one that you would choose to hear in someone speaking English? Christian and I have a bit of a debate about that. We talk about the future plans for Aussie English and for Canguro English. Christian has just started his podcast and there’s one episode up already. The link will be in the description for you guys to go and check out Christian’s podcast but just sit back and enjoy this episode, guys. It’s just a natural conversation between Christian, a fellow Australian, who’s currently living in Spain, and myself, obviously.
And remember, that if you want the breakdown of 5 to 10 minutes in this episode, you can jump over to the Aussie English Classroom where you will get a quiz and some vocab to study for a section of this interview episode. So, this is all in a bid to try to help you improve your English.
Anyway guys, I won’t hold you up any more. Here we go. Christian from kangaroo English and me just have a yarn.
Hello everybody and welcome to this live stream. I’m going to be going live this morning with Pete from Aussie English. The man, the legend…
Good! It worked! It worked.
Yeah! I had exactly the same problem with Adriana. For some reason, I’m like… I’m like, you know, cancer! Nobody wants me in their livestream.
I can’t even understand it was “unable to join”. So, it had like everyone else showing up that had them, and I could invite them, but for you said “unable”. And then, when I came in I just had to send the request. So, it’s technology.
So, maybe I have some setting wrong in my Instagram. I don’t know what it is, because I looked yesterday. I have to do some googling and find out what the problem is.
Man, I… this was the first time I even used it, yesterday, when I got on. I had no idea. I don’t do any of the live things on here. I’ve only ever used Facebook. So, I was just there like…
Wow! So, it’s incredible. This is amazing.
It’s pretty good. It’s pretty crazy. The only thing I think that they can improve on is it muting you when I talk and vice versa, ’cause I feel like I can’t hear your reactions whilst I’m talking until I stop talking. It’s like Skype.
So, where are you right now.
I am in my parents’ kitchen and living room. Behind me you can probably see their living room, and then their kitchen is here, and I am just sitting down at this big viking table. You can see it here. This is my desk at the moment.
It’s a beautiful house, actually.
Yeah, they renovated it a few years ago. So.
It looks like it has lots of glass everywhere.
Yeah. It’s pretty cheeky. If you come… you see behind me here there’s a courtyard with windows and everything, and then my room is up here, and I have a little… (I’ll) see if I can show you. I have a cute little like outdoor patio here and my bedroom’s behind here. So.
Is that… Are you living in the granny flat?
It’s part of the house. It’s still joined. But to get there, I have to go… (I’ll) see if I could show you guys, all the way… all the way up these stairs, and then turn in the door at the end there to get to my bedroom. So, you can see why I prefer to be down here. And it’s yellow, because the Sun’s setting behind me over here. So… I know.
I have the exact opposite this morning, ’cause right now the sun is just coming out.
You look like you’ve just woken up. Are you having coffee?
Yes. I woke up about half an hour ago. I’m definitely not a morning person. It takes me a long time to actually, you know, get started. So.
I’m the same. I get up at like I’m 9:30-10(am). That’s when I crawl out of bed, and I’m like, “Oh, yeah, I can do stuff now”, and then, I go to bed at 3am. So, that’s good.
Well. Yeah, well, I think probably from an Australian that’s a little bit more, like, abnormal, ’cause I’m like… I know that a lot of Australians get up very early, right?
I guess there are quite a few, especially down here, I don’t… you probably can’t… you won’t be able to see it, but through the windows here, if I take my head off (the screen), there’s sand dunes just here and then there’s a beach on the other side. And so, mum every morning gets up at like eight o’clock and goes on walks the dog and there’s, you know, hundreds of people down on the beach walking their animals. So, they’re all the people who get up early in are peppy and, like, “Oh… let’s get, you know… rise and shine!”.
But what a spectacular place to live. So, the beach is just there, just like.
Well. A kilometer away. Half a kilometer away. Maybe 500 metres. Yeah, so it’s pretty good.
Well, I know where I’ll be staking when I visit you.
Man, you should come down. I’m trying… I have to live here and, like, rent whilst I’m trying to save up to get a place here, ’cause I want to live here in Ocean Grove, but I need to save a bit of money first. So… but it would be nice. Definitely come to Melbourne.
We’ve got a question here. Well, Tum… Tum… Ok, I let me try say this. Tumwah Shifkuna says that we look like twins in the language sphere.
Yeah, that’s it. Except I think I’m slightly more freshly-shaved. There’s a little…
You might… So, you how much more spectacular beard.
Just at the moment, though. Like, for now. I just haven’t shaved for a month.
No, it’s nice. And we have an actual question here from… Well, he has… He doesn’t have his name, but his username is “Arfander”, and he says, “Is there any accents in English that we don’t understand?”.
Yeah. I have to agree. I think the most difficult accent, I think, for most native speakers would be Scottish, right?
I think so. Maybe some of those really regional American accents like in… in the south or, I think, some of those really weird places in Canada where they live in very small… like Newfoundland, right? Where they live in very small communities. And so, it almost intensifies as a result. But I remember, as a story, when my dad used to watch Billy Connolly videos, and Billy Connolly’s a really good comedian, but he’s from Glasgow. And I remember, for the first year or two not understanding it. Dad would put these on all the time and I wouldn’t understand. I’d miss the punch line. I wouldn’t know what he was saying, ’cause his accent is so strong. So, that took a long time to adapt to.
Yeah, I think that’s the interesting thing, right? But, like, it’s not… ’cause people sort of have this idea that there are, like, strong accents, but it’s, like, all accents are equally strong. It’s just a question which accents we are accustomed to hearing.
I think that’s it. And it tends to be… it tends to be that there’s… a lot of accents might be different, but they kind of converge a bit on… the vowels aren’t that different from one another, right? Like Standard British English, Standard American English, Standard Australian English, they’re kind of the same, but as soon as you go to sort of an outlier like Scottish Glasgow accent, it’s almost like their vowels are all switched around and that’s what messes with my wiring. I’m just like.
Exactly. And the vocabulary. I mean, like, in Glasgow they have so much slang that’s very specific…
That never leaves. That, you know, we don’t see on television. We don’t see it written in newspapers. So, you just… you have know idea what it means. Like, it’s.
I had to learn a lot of that from just Billy Connolly. I think he was my only sort of conduit for learning Scottish slang, because I only ever watched him, and it took a long time of watching, rewatching, getting the context, and then I was, like, “Finally! I think I know what he’s talking about when he says, “Wellies” or, you know, “Jimmy”, or something”, and I’d be like… that’s what compounds it, right? It’s almost like the accent is one thing, but then if they speak quick and on top of that they use slang everywhere, it just makes it so much harder, ’cause you can’t parse that in real time. It’s just like.
I mean, imagine the poor English learner who, you know, who’s been studying English with a teacher for four or five years and then they go to Glasgow. They don’t understand…
But that’s the same for us, right? Like, if we did a sudden school trip in Glasgow, the average Australian would probably feel like they were in a different country. You know, like, they would be like “You alright pal? You alright? You alright?”, and you’d be like, “What are they saying?!”.
Yeah, if anyone wants to… if anyone watching wants to hear some authentic sort of Scottish… you know, with slang, they should definitely look for the comedian Billy Connolly.
Yeah, he’s brilliant. With subtitles!
I’m going to type his name down in the comments.
Billy Connolly. Connolly. Is it with two L’s?
I think so. That’s one of those… Billy, and then Con… yeah, it’s double N and double L.
Oh, yeah. He’s a funny guy.
And also, there’s a video on YouTube and sometimes I show it to my students. And if you go to YouTube.
This is the guy. If you can see him. I don’t know how the… the screen’s probably too bright, but.
I mean, he just looks like a comedian. He’s funny… just looking at it him’s funny.
He’s so good. He’s amazing.
Yeah, if… on YouTube, if you… there’s a video. If you just type in YouTube, “Scottish people speaking in English maybe”, that’s the title of the video, and it’s it’s a little excerpt from Jeremy Kyle.
And it’s these two Scottish people arguing. And honestly, it’s impossible to understand. (It’s) absolutely impenetrable. It’s crazy.
Yeah. I’ll have to find it. There’s a few of those videos. I remember seeing one where there’s a guy who’s stuck on a roof and he doesn’t know where to put his feet. And these guys are teasing him like, “Just put your feet in the flashing. Put your feet in the flashing”, and he’s say of “flashing” or something like that of the roof and the guy’s like, “Where the fuck do you want me to put my feet? Where am I supposed to put my f…”. And he’s just, like, losing it, and you’re just, like, ***laughter****. It’s amazing. It’s amazing.
But it is… like, speaking about, like, how we get used to accidents. I remember recently, I was watching an episode of… what’s the name? The Ellen Degeneres show, and she plays a game called “Accents”. So, basically you… the people, they hold, they put a tablet on their heads and it says, you know, you have to do a Scottish accent or an Irish accent or New York accent, and the actor… It was the actor…Oh, I can’t remember his name. Man, I’m getting old. I can’t have anything. Anyway it had this really famous American actor on the program. And so, they were playing the game, and he could do New York and California and Scottish and South African and he could do British. And then, she does this, and it’s says “Australian”, and he’s like, “….”. He couldn’t do it, because… and I think because nobody really sort of hears it, right? Nobody practices the Australian accent.
No one cares. No one cares about us.
I think they… you know, didn’t they do that thing where they asked all these Americans where to show Australia, and they put a map out, and they… just the dots were just everywhere from South Korea to Iraq, and, like, no one knew where it was. So, it wouldn’t surprise me. But that’s what I find interesting. People say I have a strong accent, and… who are also English speakers, and a lot of the time I feel like they’re just Americans who just aren’t exposed to the Australian accent. Whereas, we hear… we watch TV from Britain, from, you know, Ireland, Scotland, America, Canada, and so, we get sort of everything and learn to understand it. Whereas, I think countries like America and Canada are probably a lot more insular and just focus… They only see their TV. And so, learn their accents and that’s it.
What’s it like in Spain?
I met a guy from California, recently, and I asked him, I said, you know, “What do people think the British accent?”, and he was like, “Wow. It’s like the British accent is like so elegant, and, you know, like James Bond, basically.” You know.
Well, what was it like for you with learning Spanish, because obviously you had, you know, Spanish-Spanish, “cena” instead of “cena”, and then you have all of these other Spanish-speaking countries that are larger than Spain. So, it’s not like you’re not going to come across them. Was it weird learning those accents?
I think, honestly, I think that when you’re learning a language, like, the last thing that you can do is have, like, a perfect accent, and in fact, it… look, like even now, I couldn’t tell you the difference between an Argentinian Spanish accent or or a Cuban Spanish accent, because, like, those little details of the language, that comes with time, with social awareness, with cultural awareness. Like, that’s something that… that if… you have to be very deep in a language to notice. I mean, I’m sure that most of our learners wouldn’t know the difference between American accent, South African accent, you know.
South African. Especially, the Australian and New Zealand (accent) tends to be one where we hear it, we hear it, and we’re like, “Man! It’s like day and night. What are you talking about? We’re totally different!” And everyone’d to be like, “You guys are the same. It’s like…”You bastards!”.
But was it like that? Learning Spanish, was it… initially, you learn Spanish Spanish, and then had to sort of adapt and learn all these other accents to like hear and understand them? Or did you learn all of them as a result?
I think, in my experience, ’cause I only speak one other language, so I can’t say for what it’s like in other languages. Maybe it’s much more different. But, for me in Spanish, Spanish is… lots of people try to say that there’s a big difference between Spanish Spanish and Latin American Spanish, but really there isn’t. The grammar is identical. The accent is more or less, you know, the same. For example, to give you an example, one of the main differences is in Latin America, they would they would drop the ‘s’ of any plurals.
So, a correct pronunciation of cars would be “coches”, “coches”, but in Argentina they would have “coche(s)”. The ‘s’ would just…
Ah! So, it’s a shame just through context, is it? You hear, like, the articles or something before it, and you’re like, “Yeah, it’s plural.”.
Yeah, exactly. Just… I mean, context is so important in language. And the other difference would be, as you mentioned, like in Iberian Spanish, you know, the ‘Z” would be like a “Th”. But in South America it’s more like soft… like a “Sss”. And as you have “Zorro”, which is a fox, and also the famous (Zorro), in Latin America.
Oh! (I) never knew that! I didn’t realise that meant “fox”. All these years, I thought it was, like, “zero” or something.
Yeah, me too! I was like, “What do you mean, it’s “Fox”? He’s called “Fox”. That’s really weird. Exactly. Oh yeah, so some people here are saying that’s Brazilian Portuguese and Portuguese Portuguese is the same situation.
It’s actually… It’s… I think it would be a bit different from Spanish and South American Spanish, because they use different pronouns and there aren’t grammatical differences. Again, I’m not that good, I’m not that proficient, in Brazilian Portuguese, but from what I’ve read there… well, and there’ll be completely different words. Like, I remember I was learning the word for “girl” in Portuguese Portuguese, but I didn’t know, and I was just using it, and I said it to Quel, and she’s like, “You just called me a “slut”!”. And I was like, “What?”. And she’s like, “Yeah, in Brazil, that word is a bad word.”. And I was like, “But it’s… “. I showed the source, and she’s like, “Yeah it’s fine in Portugal, but in Brazil, it’s very bad for you to call women “girl” or whatever in (Portuguese)”. And I was like, “God damn it…”.
Well, yeah, but I suspect it’s similar to, like, American English and British English, like, yeah there are some differences, but the total number of differences probably fit on one piece A4.
How would you… and that’s a good segue into, I guess, the differences between British English, American English, and Australian English. From our point of view, from our biased Australian point of view, what… how would you sum up… if someone sat you down, whether they were an ESL learner or they are an American or a British person, and they said to you, “Can you just tell me what the differences are? The biggest differences that I should expect when coming to Australia? Aside from potentially pronunciation, what are the differences in the language?”. ‘Cause I’ve got a few my head that I can mention, but.
Well, I am going to throw it right back at you, because, you know, I think you’re definitely more have much… ’cause, you know, ’cause you’re still living there, and you specialise in talking about these differences. I mean, what do you (think the biggest differences are).
Don’t put me on the spot, man. Don’t put me on the spot!
I think, I guess… we kind of break rules quite a lot, I think, grammatically, at least. Instead of saying “My car”, people will say “me car”, “me car”. And they use the wrong noun, wrong personal pronoun. They’ll say, “This is me wife. This is me car. This is me stuff”, you know. So, they’ll use those, and they’ll say, instead of “those”, they’ll say “them”. “Them ones”, “Them ones over there”, instead of “those”. They’ll do those sorts of things. I think too, we won’t say… what’s another example? “You guys”, I find that I say that quite a lot for plural “you”, instead of just saying “you” and it being… just leaving it as “you all”, like, I have to add something else to always make sure that people know that I’m talking about multiple people instead of just using “you”.
Yeah. I mean it’s incredible that English lacks a pronoun to talk to a group of people. I mean it’s such necessary thing. It’s such a necessary thing, and we don’t have it. I mean, but yeah, like, you could say “yous”, “yous lot” maybe?
That would happen too. Yeah “yous” where we’ve pluralised it by putting an “S” on the end. You’ll hear bogans say that. “Yous. What are yous doing? Are yous coming? Are yous coming with us?”. I know, and you’ll be like,… I’ll be there, and I’ll be like, “Oh my gosh! I can’t handle this! I’m going to have an aneurysm!”.
But isn’t it… I mean it just… if you said to somebody, “Okay. We need to invent a pronoun, a new pronoun, for a group”, you would say, “Well, we’ll put an “S” on “you” it’s a solution. You know, “Yous.”.
I know, that’s it. I can’t think how else… I wonder… there must have been a plural pronoun that just somehow fell out of use in our history, you know, from Middle English or Old English, and I wonder if we could bring it back, you know, “thou” or “thine” or something crazy. I think also though, we probably use… the thing that blows my mind about British English, American English, and Australian English is that we quite often use the same language, but at different frequencies. So, like, I’ll say certain expressions or things like, “I reckon”. I’ll use words that the Americans and the British probably know, and they probably use from time to time, but I use them way more often, and maybe in different circumstances than they would, you know. And the same with, like… what’s an example? American saying, “It’s called out.” You know, “it’s cold out.
It’s cold out.
And you’ll be like, “Out what?”
And they’re just like, “out”, and you’re like, “Oh, “outside”. Okay, gotcha!”.
Yeah, it is… Yeah, I think, that there’s… maybe there’s a little bit of business aspect to creating this idea there’s a big difference between British English and American English, but I really… I think that there’s not. I think it’s just marketing, really. And.
Well, there’s a question for you. What advice would you give people who want to learn English, but they don’t know where they want to go, if they want to leave their country and go to an English-speaking country, which English would they… should they learn, or should they… it doesn’t matter?
I don’t think it matters. I mean, I don’t think that it is… in the history of English teaching, nobody has ever gone to a country… like, no one’s arrived in America, and people would say, “Oh! Are you speaking British English?”.
I can’t imagine… I can’t imagine too, though, be like, “I’ve just spent seven years learning British English and I ended up in Canada. Shit…!”. Like, how am I going to communicate with the locals?!”
No, but I mean, it’s never happened. I mean, you know, maybe if you had studied British English for 30 years intensely, and, you know, you had… your words were perfect, an American would think that your turn of phrase, some of your vocabulary, was British, but it would never create a problem with understanding. I mean.
I mean, so… I mean, I want to ask you a question, because I’ve been wanting to ask you this for a long time. Are you travelling around Australia in a…? Tell me about this. What are you doing? What’s your plan?
I’m not yet. I’m not yet. That’s the goal, though. That’s the goal. At the moment, I’ve just moved out of my… the house I was living in Melbourne whilst I was studying. So, I was doing my PhD up in Melbourne, and that required that I was in Melbourne to go to the university and the museum on a daily basis, but the rent is.
You finished your PhD?
Yeah, yeah, yeah. I did.
Oh my God! So, I need to call you Doctor Pete?
Please do not. Please do not call me Dr. Pete.
From now on, this is Dr. Pete, right here.
Do not call me Dr. Pete. I’m a doctor in rats, the evolution of rats. That’s… it’s meaningless.
Wow, what a great thing. No, congratulations. I know that’s a lot of work.
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Oh man, I’m so glad it’s done. Believe you me, believe me, I am so glad it’s done. So, I was… I decided to move, ’cause it was $900 dollars a month just to live in Melbourne, and I just decided I don’t need to be here, I can do it online, it’s just pointless. That’s it. I can come and mooch off my parents, and not pay anything for a short period of time. So, it’s like.
(What a) tough choice! So, but, now is the goal. I want to go around and I want to show people the real Australia. I guess, that’s the goal. I would love to go round and interview real Australians about who they are, what their Australia is, where they grew up, what they… what their opinions on things are, like, living a happy life or having good relationships with people. Those sorts of things I would love to get in and just ask the average day person and bring that to the language learning scene on the podcast or YouTube so that people can just learn Australian English, whilst also learning English, but then, understand the Australian mindset. So, that’s the goal with that at least, and that’s why I’ve got a car now, and not enough money to put fuel in it.
Wow. But like, is there not any interest from the world of academia? Like, are there not any universities interested in this project from, like, sociolinguistic perspective, or…?
(I’ve got) no idea. I should probably find out.
I think… because, you know, when they do analysis of, for example, if they want to know how many people use the present perfect when they’re talking about, I don’t know, a story of the past, they try to get hold of real recordings. And I thought that you could collaborate with the university or something.
I’ll have to get… I’ll have to get locality data on all of these people. I’ll have to get like a GPS position before I start every interview so that I can be like, “This is where they were when they spoke these words.”.
And listen, you know that in the world nobody has more money than education.
So, that’s it. We’re loaded. We’re balling.
They might pay for your car, right?
Who knows. Who knows, but it’s probably worth following up and asking, yeah, if anyone here has interest in it, or… no idea.
There’s some questions here for some people.
Yeah, sorry, guys.
LiveLifeEnglish wants to know what our favorite movie is.
Oh my God. I hate when people say, “What is your 1 favorite…?”, and you’re like, “That’s worse than just saying, “Do you have a few…?””, and you can, like, spout them off. I’ll let you go first.
For me, I think probably my favorite film would be Eyes Wide Shut. Stanley Kubrick’s final film. An incredible film. And a lot of people really hated that movie. So.
Or maybe a close second would be the film There Will Be Blood with Daniel Day Lewis. That was an amazing movie.
Oh, man. He is incredible. I think that’s probably an easy thing for me to say, “Who is your favorite actor?”, than, “What is your favorite film?”, but based on that, I would say The Dark Knight with Heath Ledger. That blew me away. That absolutely blew me away. He was phenomenal.
Yeah, he was incredible. I mean, no one can ever be The Joker again, ’cause he was just so good.
I know, Jared Leto tried and it was a shambles.
So, is… would he… would you say that Heath Ledger was your favorite actor as well?
He was one of them, definitely. I think Tom Hardy is one of my favorite actors too. He is really versatile, and he was in the third installment of that Batman series, as, you know, “Let the games begin”, to be like this I guess, “Let the games begin, Batman”. Like… He was jacked in that film. He was… that was amazing.
Ok. There’s another question here. What is… what is worse to you as native speakers, grammatical mistakes or a bad accent?
I think for me, you can have the strongest accent in the world, but if you don’t make as many grammatical mistakes it’s just not as difficult to listen to, because it takes me a moment to get used to your accent and then it’s fine. But, if I hear a native person making massive grammatical errors, I’d prefer to listen to someone with a strong accent who doesn’t make as many grammatical errors than a native speaker who makes lots. You know. So, it’s not that big a deal, but if I had to choose, I think that would be it.
Yeah, it’s funny that, isn’t it? It’s almost like a type of prejudice, like, in the sense that we expect… you expect a native speaker to be able to control grammar properly, right?
I don’t know if it’s that or if it’s more that I just… my brain has to work harder to fill in the gaps. If someone makes grammatical errors, I have to think harder about… what are they trying to say? Whereas, if the accent’s just strong, that’ll… as soon as I get zoned in on the vowel sounds they’re making or they’re different… slightly different consonant sounds, then I don’t have to work anymore after I’ve realized, “Okay, they’ve got a slight accent. I’m used to it”, but if they make big grammatical errors, sometimes I’ll be like… you know, like, if they completely change phrasal verbs, you know, to say “look under” instead of “look after someone”. They could say that perfectly, and I’d be like, “I don’t understand what you’re trying to say.”.
I’m going to get up and just turn on the light, ’cause the Sun’s setting me. There we go. Let there be light!
What about you Christian?
Well, yeah. I mean, really… I think it’s a difficult question to answer. I think, if I can understand you, I don’t really care. Oh, man see… (Pete just put a hat on his head)
I’ve got to… if I do this, my head’s shiny, right? So, the light comes from here. And, you know, so I’ve got to, like, put my hat on to cover the light off my head. Bald man issues, bald man issues.
Oh my God. Maddik said that he prefers to listen to native speakers because his brain doesn’t have to work as hard.
I’ve got an interesting anecdote for that. I… when I was learning French really really hard, like, working away at it, and I was doing it every day, I found it so easy to speak to French people, and then one day when I was at the gym, I was speaking to one of my friends who was French and another guy who was Australian came up to me, and started speaking French to me, and I had the biggest issues with his accent. He had it… he didn’t have… He didn’t put any accent on to try and speak French. So, instead of trying to use the French accent, he just didn’t use it. And then, on top of that, he was making a lot of grammatical errors. And again, it wasn’t a judgment on him or anything, it was just that, all of a sudden, I went from perfectly understanding the native speaker to having to work really really hard with trying to work out, as someone who’s… French isn’t my first language, so that made it even more difficult. But yeah. So, I can understand both. You’re having breakfast at the same time, are you?
As you know, I only got up five minutes before we started. So, you know. I eating… it’s more malt loaf.
Malt loaf? What’s in it?
It’s a really dense fruit bread. It’s really good. The problem is it’s very cloying.
It’s very what?
Cloying. Like, it sticks to everything. It’s very intensely, you know.
You’re not producing enough saliva to deal with it.
You are getting old Christian!
Yeah, let me just take my teeth out so that I can eat it better.
That’s it. You just need a glass of saliva from yesterday that you can just sip on every now and then, you know.
My coffee’s all gone. SO…
That’s it. But what about you? What were you saying? Which is more difficult for you, a strong accent or bad grammar?
I don’t know. I think if I can only if I can understand you, I don’t care. Like, if… like, you could have perfect grammar and a bad accent, and I can’t understand you, or, you know, you could have really terrible grammar, but you pronounce it words well and I can understand you it’s… so many different… I mean.
It’s almost like it depends what grammatical errors you’re making, really.
Because, I had the opposite experience to you. One day I was at the school, and this person came in, a Spanish person and said… and said in English, “I ah…” he came in and he was like this. “incomprehensible English”, and I was like, “What are you saying to me?”.
And then, in the end, we spoke in Spanish to organise the class, and during this time, there was a student waiting to have class with me, and she understood what this guy said perfectly.
Her mind… Her… she had like the accent, the Spanish accent, when speaking English was, like, in her mind. It was very peculiar. I couldn’t understand the guy. He was completely… you know, he displayed all of the worst characteristics of the Spanish accent in English, and you know, he spoke really fast, and oh man, but…
So, what advice would you have for English learners then, who say, “Alright. I am ever going to work on my pronunciation or grammar. Which one should I focus on first and, you know, most heavily.
I don’t know. I think people have an idea. You know, they have no idea what their problem is. Don’t you think? Like, I think people know.
Your weak spots.
Yeah, and I think you just have to be honest with yourself. And I think, as well, you have to be perceptive. Like, people don’t understand you, you’re speaking and they’re like, “???”. You have to work on that.
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I think that’s one of the keys that I always tell my students is once you get to the intermediate to advanced level the thing you need to start becoming an expert at is finding what things you’re screwing up, whether it’s your accent or it’s grammar, and it’s not that you can just identify them all today, find the answer, and “bam!” it’s all fixed. It’s an ongoing process, literally, on a day to day basis, for the next year, 10 years, 100 years. You’re going to have to spend… just constantly identifying your mistakes. And it’s the same with me. I have to keep doing that on a daily basis with my English. I find things that I’m saying, you know, incorrectly, maybe even my pronunciation. Until two years ago I was saying “pronOUncation” instead of “pronUnciation”. And at the time I was like, “Well, “to pronounce” something. It’s “pronounciation”.” And then, one of my friends looked it up and show me, you know, (they) grabbed the computer, and was like, “Pronunciation*”. And now every time I hear someone make that error it just hits me in the.
Yeah, I mean it is… these kind of little misunderstandings. You know, they’re quite common, I think. And it’s more embarrassing, right, if you’re a native speaker, because you feel like, “I should know that. This’s my language. I should know.
Yeah, well that’s like when you call me out on spelling.
Even when you’re spelling correctly.
Oh man, that got me! So, Christian keeps catching me making spelling mistakes or… on Instagram. And he’ll be like “Wrong! Wrong”. And I’ll just be like, “Damn it!”. I did that too fast. I didn’t check it. I was lazy. And then, he did it yesterday when it was all 100% correct, and I was sitting there for five minutes like, “Oh my God! what have I screwed up? Why can’t I see it?”.
Oh, it was… I’m really sorry about that.
That’s ok. I… you trolled me. You got me. You trolled me well. I was totally like, “I can’t see it! Am I that dumb?!”.
Well, I think that your merch, your merchandise, your t-shirts, and everything, is really cool, and anybody watching you should definitely buy some of Pete’s stuff and support him through buying some of his t-shirts and hoodies, and you can wear them with pride.
See if you can show me. Send me a photo if any of you get it. And I’ll have to get some as well, and start wearing them around the street so that people think I’m learning Australian English.
Well, what about you Christian? Tell us about the podcast and your yawls for that in the near future. What’s the… what’s it called and what’s the aim of the podcast? And how can people find it?
Well, the… I’ve only made one episode so far, and my goal was to… because, sometimes there are things I want to talk about in videos, but too heavy for a video or to, like, long, and a podcast seemed like a perfect place to talk about those things. But, if I’m going to be honest, I think my first podcast was too dry, and it was a little bit too serious, and, you know, I’m not sure if I said all the things I wanted to say.
That’s how it goes. That’s how it goes. You just have to keep (at it. Would’ve… I think, someone… they tell me when I started, they were like, and this is a bit crass, but you guys’ll love it. “Just keep throwing shit at the wall and see what sticks.”. So, it’s a vivid image. Just keep throwing. It doesn’t have to be “shit”. It can be “mud”. Just keep throwing things at the wall and see what sticks to the wall, and just keep, you know, keep doing the good bits that stay. So…
Yeah well, I mean for me, the experience was… ’cause I had to sit in this sort of like a room with lots of blankets to absorb the sound, and I was doing take after take, and, oh, it just wasn’t… It was really frustrating. Super frustrating. And.
That’s the learning experience, though. That’s, you know, starting a new language.
It is! It’s like a new language. There’s no visuals. It’s just voice, and wow. So, I’m hoping that I will improve, you know, over the next 10 or 20 podcasts. I really want to improve my… well everything: delivery, content, everything. So…
I think you just… the way to look at it, and it’s like language learning, it’s almost like, you know, at first you have your first conversation, and you’re like, “Oh, that one’s so bad!”. But you have to look at it like, “How am I going to be after ten conversations, twenty conversation, a hundred conversations?”, and then just go out and have them as soon as possible. And like, get in there, dive in there, make them awful, but then walk away from it with the experience of 10 conversations, 20 conversations, 100 conversations. Just punish it. Punish mate. You’ve got this.
Great advice. I’m sorry Pete, but I have to go, because my battery is going to go flat at any moment.
Man, you(‘ve) got to be MacGyver, mate. You(‘ve) got to always be prepared.
I know. I feel bad about that.
We’ve had some questions in here asking us to make this a podcast. Is there any way I can get the audio off you and we can check this up? We could do, you know, both of us.
You know, I don’t know, ’cause I did a long stream yesterday, and I tried to save the video to my telephone. And it was impossible, and I don’t know why, and I don’t know if I can do it through the Instagram website. I don’t know. But I will try to do something to.
We’ll give it a go.
But, I don’t know if anybody wants to really hear us rambling.
Man, they love this sort of stuff. They love it. They love practising English hearing two people speak at once. That’s the funniest thing I had… A whole bunch of them are just like, “More conversations! Not just one person speaking. You need everyone in there.”. So…
Well, listen, we should definitely do this again soon.
I had a great time chatting to you.
I need to find out what’s wrong with my telephone so that we can do the stream on your account and you could invite me.
Yeah. Just give it a go. See if you can save this one. But worst-case scenario, we’ll just have to catch up again.
Yeah. So, for anybody who doesn’t know, this is Pete from Aussie English, YouTube channel, podcast, courses, everything. The man, the legend, the doctor.
And this is Christian from Canguro English, another Australian. if you guys from my channel, go and follow Christian at, I guess, it’s Canguro English on Facebook, on YouTube, and you don’t have a current web site for the podcast, yet or do you?
No, it’s just on Soundcloud. Yeah, there’s no website.
Soon. It’s in the making, guys. It’s in the making. But if you want access to another Aussie, follow Christian.
Alright, well, it was a pleasure Pete. Speak to you soon my man.
Alright, guys. So, that was an interview with Christian and myself. But Christian from Canguro English. That’s spelt CANGURO ENGLISH. Canguro English, but two words. You can check him out on YouTube, his podcast has come out and it’s on Soundcloud, he also has an Instagram account, and you can see him on Facebook. So, check Cristian out, guys, if you want to learn English from a fellow Australian English teacher, and the links will be in today’s transcript.
Don’t forget guys, if you’d like to support this podcast and maintain it ad-free on the podcast, (to) help me do what I do every week and keep bringing you awesome content, then you can sign up to be a patron via my Patreon page that is PATREON. Just search Aussie English Patreon. You can sign up there and donate as little as a dollar per month to keep the lights on in my house and to keep me bringing new content on a weekly basis just like this.
Aside from that guys, if you want to support the podcast and you want to upgrade your English at the same time, don’t forget to sign up to the Aussie English Classroom. You can try it for one dollar for your first month, for your first 30 days, you can get in there, do courses, do all sorts of lessons and quizzes, interact with other people, and now with the new speaking challenge, every week you can practice making videos and posting them in the Aussie English Facebook group in order to practice your spoken English. Also, you will find a breakdown of between 10 to 15 minutes of today’s interview in the Aussie English classroom that’s designed to focus on teaching you more of the vocab and expressions used in this interview. So, it’s all about reinforcing your English.
Anyway guys, you’ve been awesome. Keep doing what you’re doing and keep levelling up your English and you will only succeed. I look forward to chatting to you in class. See you guys.
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By pete — 1 year ago
In this episode of Effortless Phrasal Verbs I’m going to teach you to use phrasal verbs with FOR like a native English speaker.
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By pete — 9 months ago
Learn Australian English in this expression episode of the Aussie English Podcast where I teach you to use the expression WATER UNDER THE BRIDGE like a native speaker and also teach you about the history of the Sydney Harbour Bridge!
AE 440 – Expression: Water Under the Bridge
The great job is done and the 7 years of “Thou shalt not trespass” to the public are relegated into the limbo of forgotten things. The bridge belongs to the man in the street and how he has taken possession of it. Posterity can never experience the thrill that we have known in watching it rise up slowly but surely, until today, it flung wide its gates.
G ‘day you mob! How’s it going? And welcome to this episode of Aussie English.
So, this is the Aussie English Podcast, the number one podcast for anyone and everyone wanting to improve their English, and specifically Australian English. It’s aimed at helping you improve your pronunciation, your listening comprehension, your spoken English, and also give you a bit more knowledge when it comes to things like Australian slang, culture, food, all that good stuff. So, welcome to the podcast episode, guys.
Today, is an expiration episode and the expression is ‘water under the bridge’, which we’ll get into shortly.
So, quickly, that scene at the start there was from a video from a film covering the opening, the inauguration, of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in the year 1932. So, there’ll be a link in the transcript if you would like to watch that entire video. It’s about, what, 80, 90 years old now? And it’s pretty cool seeing all these people wearing different clothing like hats and suits that all come from back in that period, not to mention the fact that the bridge is out in open space. You go there today in Sydney, in the CBD, and there’s buildings everywhere. So, it’s a very cool video to watch.
Anyway guys, this is the Aussie English Podcast, which is brought to you by, first and foremost, you the listener, everyone who supports the podcast whether donating via Patreon, where you can sign up to donate as little as a dollar per month, or whether you’re giving a one-off donation via Paypal, or you’re a student in the Aussie English Classroom. And that is an online classroom where you get access to all the bonus content for each of these episodes, and remember, you can sign up and try that for a dollar for your first 30 days. TheAussieEnglishClassroom.com.
Anyway, guys, let’s get into today’s episode. So, the expression is ‘water under the bridge’, hence why I’m talking about the Sydney Harbour Bridge. I thought that linked in nicely. And I also found a joke, a joke, about bridges. Okay. So, here’s the joke.
So, a man goes to see his doctor and he says to the Doctor, “Doctor! Doctor! I think I’m a bridge! I think I’m a bridge!”, and the doctor asks, “What’s come over you? Why do you think you’re a bridge? What’s come over you?”. And the man replies, “Three cars, a van, and a motorbike!”.
Woo! That’s killer. Alright. So, basically, the joke there is with the phrasal verb ‘to come over someone’. Okay? So, this has multiple meanings. The first one there is the literal version of ‘to come over someone’, like to go over someone, to go over the top of someone, i.e. getting run over by a car, for example. So, “What’s come over you?”. “Three cars, a van, and a motorbike.”, as would come over a bridge.
But, ‘to come over something’, as well, can mean to influence someone suddenly to behave a certain way. So, you could imagine that if the dog that you have in your house starts barking like crazy one night, you might say to it, “What’s come over you, mate? Why are you behaving like this? Why are you suddenly doing this? What’s come over you?”. So, that’s the joke.
So, today’s expression, guys, is ‘water under the bridge’. ‘Water under the bridge’. For something to be ‘water under the bridge’.
So, this was suggested by Kel in the Aussie English Classroom private Facebook group. This is where we all get together, all the members of the classroom, the Aussie English Classroom, and we chat in there, we do live videos, we work on our spoken English, and each week, I try to suggest expressions as well as get students’ expressions, and everyone votes on them for this episode.
So, it was a great suggestion Kel. ‘Water under the bridge’. So, great suggestion and it’s an English expression that’s used everywhere. This is not specific to Australia.
So, let’s go through and define the words in the expression ‘water under the bridge’. Okay?
So, ‘water’. I’m sure you guys know what ‘water’ is, a colourless transparent odourless liquid, which forms things like seas, lakes, rivers, rain, and it’s the basis for fluids used in living organisms. Right? You are probably 70 to 80 percent water, and you drink water. The sea is full of water. I’m sure you know what ‘water’ is.
The next word here is a preposition or a particle, ‘under’, right? ‘Under’. To be ‘under’ something that is to be beneath something. It’s the opposite of being above something or on top of something. If you are situated below something, if you are beneath something, you are under something. You know, animals live underground, animals like moles or worms or ants. They live underground.
The last word here is a noun, ‘a bridge’, right? ‘A bridge’. ‘A bridge’ is a structure built to carry a road or a path or a railway across river, road, valley, canyon, or any other obstacle. Okay? ‘A bridge’. So, the Sydney Harbour Bridge is a bridge. And we have a huge one in Melbourne called the West Gate Bridge. And these usually cross things like rivers or bays or roads, as we said before.
Alright. So. they’re the words.
Expression Definition & Origin:
What does the expression mean, though? When we put these words together and we use this expression ‘water under the bridge’, what on earth does that mean? Water under the bridge. Yeah, okay. So, there’s water and it’s under the bridge, what does that mean?
So, literally, ‘water under the bridge’ is exactly that. It is water that is beneath a bridge or water that is flowing below a bridge. It is going under a bridge. So, it’s allowed to flow beneath the bridge and it’s not obstructed by anything. It can freely move underneath a bridge.
But figuratively, when we say that something’s ‘water under a bridge’, it means that whatever’s happened in the past can’t be undone, it can’t be changed, you can’t go back in time and change things, so don’t worry about it. Let’s move on with things. It’s not a big deal. The past is in the past. What’s done is done. What’s happened is unchangeable. Let’s forget about it. It’s a water under the bridge, right? So, imagine it like water passing by under the bridge and it’s gone. It’s done. It’s finished. There’s nothing you can do about it so it’s not a big deal.
And you also hear this used like expressions, ‘what’s done is done’ or ‘the past is in the past’ or simply ‘the past’s the past’.
So, where did this expression originate from? The earliest example I could find was from 1934. So, a song was entitled ‘Water under the bridge’ and it was written by Paul Francis Webster, Lou Pollock, and it was performed by Fred Waring, and this was all the way back in the 1930s, and the first line of the chorus begins as, “We kissed and love flowed through my heart like water under the bridge.”. So, it’s probably not being used exactly as we use it today, but there it is ‘water under the bridge’.
Most recently too, as a quick mention, artists like Adele and Olivia Newton-John actually have songs called ‘Water under the bridge’. So, check those out on YouTube.
So, as usual, let’s go through three examples of how I would use this expression. If something’s water under the bridge, what does that mean? How would I use this in day to day life?
Okay, so example number one. Imagine that I’m walking through the city and I stumble into an old friend from primary school. So, I bump into an old friend from school. It was by chance. I didn’t expect to see them. So, I haven’t seen them in like 12 years and we have a bit of a chat after we’ve recognised each other, and maybe one of us realises that the other one was a bit of a brat, a bit of a rascal, in school and maybe bullied me or I bullied them, maybe we teased each other, we paid each other out a lot as kids. If one of us apologises for that and says, “You know what, I was a real naughty kid, I was a bit of a brat, I was a rascal when I was in primary school and I was nasty. Sorry about that. I really apologise for being horrible.”. The other person might say, “Man, that was 12 years ago. Nothing to apologise about. No worries. It was so long ago, it’s a water under the bridge.”. So, it’s in the past it’s unchangeable. It’s so long ago, forget about it. It’s water under the bridge.
Example number two. So, in this example imagine, you know, countries in Europe, in the Americas, in Asia, were all fighting each other in World War II, right? All of these countries were at each other’s throats. They were trying to kill each other. They were fighting for power. People hated each other. There was racism, genocide, rape, murder, torture, the deaths of millions of people. You guys will know about what happened in the 20th century there, in World War II. But today, many of these countries consider themselves allies. They consider themselves friends. They have good relations. They… their relations have improved since that time. So, all of that stuff that happened was in the past. What’s done is done, and today, it’s water under the bridge, right? So, even though England and Germany were on opposite sides in World War II, they’re now good allies in Europe. So, what’s done is done. What’s in the past is in the past. It’s all water under the bridge.
Example Number Three. Okay, so here’s a personal anecdote from me. When I was growing up, my sister and I really didn’t get along. We used to fight each other all the time. We’d be yelling at each other, teasing each other. Maybe my sister would run to my mum and dad and, you know, complain about me, she’d dob on me, or tell on me for something. Maybe I’d pull her hair or steal her toys. And so, we grew up really disliking each other. However today, we get along like a house on fire. We are pretty close, we hang out, we chat, we see each other quite a bit. So, everything that has happened in the past is in the past. What’s done is done. It’s unchangeable, but it’s all water under the bridge. We have a really good relationship now. We’re on good terms. So, if I pulled her aside and apologised to her, she would probably say to me, “Pete, don’t worry about it. It’s so long ago, it’s water under the bridge.”.
Alright guys, so by now, I hope you understand the expression ‘water under the bridge’. Remember, we used this to talk about anything that has happened in the past, a long time ago, and it’s unchangeable. You can’t undo it and you shouldn’t worry about it. So, what’s done is done and what’s in the past is in the past. It’s water under the bridge.
So, let’s do a listen and repeat exercise as usual, guys. This is your chance to practice your pronunciation, to try and focus on intonation and rhythm and connected speech, and if you really want to try and nail your Australian accent, it’s your chance to copy me as I speak. Otherwise, just say these words after me. Okay? So, listen then repeat after me. Let’s go.
Listen & Repeat:
It’s water under
It’s water under the
It’s water under the bridge x 5
Good job. So, now let’s just do a little bit more and I want you to imagine a situation where you want to say to someone, if they’ve apologised to you, that, “It’s not a problem, it’s water under the bridge”. But let’s use some common Australian English phrases. Okay? So, listen and repeat after me, guys. And this is how you would say, “Not to worry. It’s not a problem. It’s water under the bridge.”. So, listen and repeat.
All good. It’s water under the bridge.
Don’t worry. It’s water under the bridge.
No stress. It’s water under the bridge.
No dramas. It’s water under the bridge.
She’ll be right. It’s water under the bridge.
Great job, and I will mention here, if you want to make it even more informal and very, very friendly, you can add ‘mate’ at either end of either of those sentences. So, you could say “She’ll be right, mate. It’s water under the bridge.”, or you could say “She’ll be right. It’s water under the bridge, mate.”.
So, we use ‘mate’ in Australia a lot to really sort of emphasise the friendliness of discussions. Now, we might avoid using this on women, and some women may not decide to use this when they’re talking, in fact, most women probably won’t say ‘mate’, but if you’re a guy listening to this and you’re talking to other guys, especially Australians, don’t be afraid to say ‘mate’. It’ll really come across like you’re being incredibly friendly. Okay? So, there you go.
Alright, guys, remember, if you want to get access to all the bonus content that will break this exercise down, this pronunciation exercise and go through things like connected speech and rhythm, intonation, then sign up to the Aussie English Classroom. Each week at the moment, I am releasing videos that take you through step by step all the aspects of connected speech and pronunciation and will better equip you to sound like an Australian English speaker, and you can sign up there and try it for one dollar for 30 days at TheAussieEnglishClassroom.com.
So, let’s get into the Aussie English fact for today, guys, and then we will finish up.
So, the Aussie fact. Have you guessed what it’s about? It’s about the Sydney Harbour Bridge. So, I want to talk about that and I also want to talk about an interesting incident that occurred at the opening of the bridge in 1932. Alright so, let’s get into it.
The Sydney Harbour Bridge is probably in the top three icons or iconic symbols synonymous with Australia. So, you would also know, obviously, the Sydney Opera House and Uluru. Those three things tend to be synonymous symbols with Australia. When you see them, you know you’re thinking about Australia at the same time. So, anyone who knows about Australia will definitely recognise the bridge. And let’s go through some facts about the bridge.
The Sydney Harbour Bridge is steel, it’s made of steel, and it is a steel through arch bridge. So, it’s a… it’s made of steel, it’s in the shape of an arch, and you drive through the middle of it. It carries rail, vehicular, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic between the Sydney CBD, and the Central Business District, and the North Shore. So, it crosses the bay there.
The bridge is nicknamed the ‘Coathanger’, because of its arch-based design. And ‘a coathanger’ is something that you would hang a coat or any other item of clothing on in a wardrobe.
So, it’s the sixth longest-spanning arch bridge in the world and the tallest steel arch bridge measuring about 134 metres from the very top all the way down to the water level.
Its construction began nearly 100 years ago on the 28th of July in 1923. So, I guess 95 years ago. And it ended nine years later on the 19th of January in 1932. So, talk about a bridge that took a long time to build. Hey guys? And the gates were open to the general public about two months after its construction was complete.
So, the bridge was formally opened on Saturday on the 19th of March in 1932. And following the speeches being given at that event, Jack Lang, who was the Premier of New South Wales at the time, he was about to cut the ribbon and declare the bridge open when a man in military uniform suddenly rode up on a horse brandishing a sword, a sabre, and he slashed the ribbon in two and declared that the Sydney Harbour Bridge was opened in the name of the people of New South Wales before the official ceremony could begin.
So, this man was promptly swarmed by security and he was pulled from his horse, arrested, and escorted from the scene. The ribbon was hurriedly retired and Lang performed the official opening ceremony and the bridge was inaugurated, and the inauguration was followed by a 21-gun salute, as in, 21 guns were fired into the air as a celebration, and the RAAF or ‘RAAF’ the Royal Australian Air Force did a flypast, where all of these planes flew past above the bridge.
So, the intruder on horseback was later identified as Francis De Groot who was ultimately convicted of offensive behaviour and he was fined five pounds after a psychiatric test proved he was sane, but this verdict was reversed on appeal. And strangely enough, de Groot actually successfully sued the Commissioner of Police for wrongful arrest and was awarded an undisclosed out of court settlement. So, he might have even got more money than was the fine he was originally meant to pay, the five pounds, right?
So, De Groot was actually a member of a right-wing paramilitary group called the New Guard who were opposed to Lang’s leftist policies and resentful of the fact that a member of the Royal Family hadn’t been asked to open the bridge. So, these guys were obviously royalists, very passionate about the Royal Family, and wanted them to be at the forefront of this inauguration.
So, De Groot was not a member of the regular army, but he’d worn this uniform and it allowed him to blend in with the rest of the cavalry. So, that’s how he snuck in to this event.
After the official ceremonies, the public was allowed to walk across the bridge and there were somewhere between 300,000 and 1,000,000 people, 1,000,000 people, who took part in the opening festivities. So, that’s ridiculous, that’s crazy, because Sydney’s population at the time was only 1,250,000. So, if we assume that it was 1,000,000 people, that’s almost like 80 percent of the people in Sydney crossing it. And even if it was only 300,000, that’s still something like 20 percent. So, it’s a crazy amount of people that came to check out the bridge. I guess today, we’d probably just, you know, use our iPhones.
Anyway, today you can go and see this bridge. It can be viewed from many parts of Sydney’s CBD. You can get a train across, you can drive across it, you can cycle or walk across it, and you can even climb to the very top of it if you desire.
Anyway, guys, that is it for today. A massive thank you for listening and, I guess, a small mention, just remember, guys, that I am in the process of doing up the website, and when it comes in in the future I will be charging a small fee for the transcripts and the MP3 downloads. And so, the whole point of bringing this in, and the reason I want to remind you, is because I’m hiring other people to work for me to try and help me bring better content for you guys.
So, I thank you so much for all the people who replied to me via email when I sent that out this week. I really, really appreciated the replies that I got, and you guys overwhelmingly told me it was a good idea and that I should definitely start charging so that I can afford to improve the content and improve my English.
So, a massive thank you to you guys, and yeah, thank you for encouraging me, because sometimes it’s difficult to know whether you are making the right decision and that’s why I really enjoy putting it to you guys and asking you guys for your feedback. So, thank you.
Anyway, I’ll see you next week. Have a ripper of a weekend!
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